Poultry Housing Tips

Volume: 25
[title-raw] Brooding Temperatures and Heating Costs

Brooding day-old-chicks during the cold winter months can prove to be an expensive proposition.  It can be very tempting to lower house temperature a few degrees to help reduce heating costs but most people don’t realize how little of an impact this would actually have on heating cost.  This is because how much it costs to heat a poultry house is primarily controlled by overall house quality and outside temperature, not house temperature.  Yes, if brooding temperatures were lowered by ten...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Energy conservation
No. 9
December 2013
[title-raw] Increasing Sidewall Height Doesn’t Significantly Increase Heating Costs

There is a common misconception that a poultry house with a higher ceiling will have a significantly higher heating costs than one with a lower ceiling.  The truth is that how much it costs to heat a poultry house has much more to do with how well it is insulated and ventilated than how high the ceiling is.  For instance, did you know that for a modern totally enclosed broiler house increasing the sidewall height from eight to ten feet would increase heating costs by less than 5%. This is...

Categories:
Heating systems
House construction
Minimum ventilation
No. 8
November 2013
[title-raw] Measuring Outside Air Temperature

Having an accurate outside temperature sensor wired into a house’s environmental controller can be helpful in managing the environment within a poultry house.  During cold weather some controllers are able to adjust minimum ventilation rates based on outside temperature.  This can be helpful because as outside temperatures decrease, the air tends to contain less moisture so minimum ventilation rates can be slightly decreased, resulting in reduced fuel usage.  Side wall inlet static pressure...

Categories: Environmental controllers
No. 7
July 2013
[title-raw] How do Tunnel Inlet Doors Affect Air Velocity Distribution in Tunnel Houses?

Often the bird-cooling ability of a tunnel-ventilated poultry house is measured in terms of average air velocity.  An average air velocity  is generally determined by averaging multiple air velocity measurements taken across the cross-section of a house approximately 100' from the tunnel fans.  Though this will provide some measure of  how capable a house is of keeping birds cool during hot weather, air speed uniformity is of equal or possibly greater importance.  For instance, assume we had...

Categories: Tunnel ventilation
No. 6
June 2013
[title-raw] Minimizing Wet Litter Problems During Hot Weather

Managing proper litter moisture during cold weather with low outside air temperatures, loose houses, low air exchange rates and high fuel prices has been and always will be a challenge.  But, many producers are now finding maintaining good litter quality during hot weather can be equally as challenging, even in the best of housing.  One of the primary reasons it is becoming more difficult to control litter moisture during hot weather is the trend towards growing larger and larger birds. ...

Categories: Hot weather management
No. 5
May 2013
[title-raw] How Much Do Evaporative Cooling Pads Reduce Air Speed?

Though evaporative cooling pads can do a great job of keeping birds cool during hot weather by reducing the temperature of incoming air 20oF or more, it is important to keep in mind that this cooling comes at a price, namely increased humidity and reduced air speed.  Though there is no practical way of reducing the humidity produced by evaporative cooling pads without reducing the cooling, the reduction in air speed caused by the restrictive nature of pad systems can be somewhat offset by...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Tunnel ventilation
No. 4
April 2013
[title-raw] Attic Inlets Operation Guidelines

When it comes to operating any air inlet system during the cooler times of the year it is important to keep in mind that our primary objective is to maximize the amount of fresh air we bring in without causing excessive decreases in air temperature or excessive increases in fuel usage.  Quite simply, the more air we can bring in without decreasing house temperature, the fresher the air will be, and the better our birds will perform.  For instance, let’s say you have older birds and four 36"...

Categories:
Air inlets
Attic inlets
Cold weather management
Minimum ventilation
No. 2
February 2013
[title-raw] What is the Optimal Static Pressure When Using Air Inlets?

One of the most common questions producers have about ventilating poultry houses during cold weather is “What is the optimal static pressure?”  The short answer to this important question is between 0.05" and 0.12".  The range of acceptable static pressures is quite wide because of the fact that there is no single correct static pressure that can be used in all houses, under all circumstances that will produce optimal environmental conditions with a minimum of fuel usage.  The optimal static...

Categories:
Air inlets
Cold weather management
Minimum ventilation
Negative pressure ventilation
No. 1
January 2013
Volume: 24
[title-raw] Best Performing Tunnel Fans - 2012

When building a new house or retrofitting an older one for tunnel ventilation, fan selection is one of the most, if not the most important decision a producer has to make.  A house’s fans are essentially the engine of the ventilation system and as a result have a significant effect on a producer’s ability to maintain the proper environmental conditions throughout the year.  Furthermore, with rising electricity prices selecting the right energy efficient fan can save a producer thousands of...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 12
December 2012
[title-raw] The Three Keys to Litter Moisture Control...Fresh Air, Heat, and Air Movement

What does it take to control litter moisture during cold weather?  Quite simply it requires three things:  fresh air, heat, and air movement.  Fresh air is required to transport excess moisture from inside the house to outside the house.  Heat is needed to increase the temperature as well as the moisture holding capacity of the cool incoming air, and air movement helps to extract the moisture from the litter so it can be exhausted from the house.  Any successful moisture control program must...

Categories:
Air inlets
Circulation fans
Minimum ventilation
Negative pressure ventilation
No. 11
November 2012
[title-raw] A Dozen Cold Weather Poultry House Moisture Control Facts

Controlling house moisture levels during cold weather can be a real challenge at times.  The birds are continually adding moisture to the air as well as the litter which can only be controlled by exchanging the warm, moisture-laden inside air with cooler, drier outside air.  If air exchange rates are too low, over time moisture builds up in the litter and the production of ammonia will increase, as will foot pad and leg problems.  If too high, houses may become dusty; but of potentially...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Minimum ventilation
No. 10
October 2012
[title-raw] Forced Air Furnaces Can Reduce Bird Cooling During Hot Weather

To produce optimal cooling of large broilers during hot weather most houses today are being designed to obtain a wind speed of between 600 and 750 ft/min.  It is important to realize that a design air speed is an average air speed.  Air speed can vary significantly across the cross-section of a house.  Air speeds will tend to be higher in the center of the house than along the side walls and higher at the ceiling than near the floor.  The reason for the variation is the fact that air will...

Categories:
Air speed
Tunnel ventilation
No. 9
September 2012
[title-raw] Plastic Evaporative Cooling Pads...A First Look

.....Little has changed when it comes to poultry house evaporative cooling pads over the last 30 years.  Yes, there have been some relatively minor changes in things such as flute angles (45o X 15o vs. 30o X 30o), edge coatings, and pad thickness (6" vs. 4"), but for the most part the traditional paper pad looks and cools about the same as it did decades ago.  Recently, there has been interest in a very different type of evaporative cooing pad, one constructed of plastic.  It is hoped by...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Tunnel ventilation
No. 8
August 2012
[title-raw] The Inverted-V Migration Fence...A First Look

Over the years a variety of migration fences have been used by producers to help minimize bird migration over the course of a flock.  For the most part producers have tended to settle on primarily two types of fences:  the corrugated black plastic pipe and the epoxy coated wire shelving.  Each of these fences has advantages and disadvantages.  The corrugated black pipe is easy to install, birds can easily jump over it in case of crowing when the producer is walking through the house, but can...

Categories: Tunnel ventilation
No. 7
August 2012
[title-raw] Pullet House Air Speed/Static Pressure Estimating Spreadsheet

A tunnel-ventilated pullet house with light traps is one of the most difficult types of poultry houses to design a ventilation system for.  There are dozens of different types of light traps to choose from, each with differing abilities to reduce the amount of light entering the house.  How much each of these light traps restrict air flow also varies widely and does not necessarily correspond with their “darkness”.  As a result, some light traps are very dark as well as restrictive.  Others...

Categories:
Air speed
Breeder
Lighting
Tunnel ventilation
No. 6
June 2012
[title-raw] Tunnel Air Speed/Static Pressure Estimating Spreadsheet

Have you ever wondered what would happen to the air speed in your tunnel-ventilated house if you added a fan or two, cleaned your evaporative cooling pads, or possibly added 20' more evaporative cooling pad?  A new spreadsheet has been developed (available at www.poultryventilation.com) to help broiler producers answer those questions as well as many others.  Over the last two years thousands of air velocity...

Categories:
Air speed
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 5
May 2012
[title-raw] Seven Reason why Chickens are NOT Fed Hormones

It seems to occur with increasing frequency. Sometimes it crops up in a conversation with someone seated next to you on an airplane, or perhaps at a social gathering. If you happen to mention you are involved in poultry nutrition, sooner or later the question is bound to arise: ‘Why do you add hormones to chicken feed?’ The form of the question…asking why? Instead of if?…emphasizes the degree of misinformation prevalent among the general public. As all nutritionists know, it is simply not...

Categories: Bird health
No. 4
April 2012
[title-raw] How Does Tunnel Fans Placement Affect Fan Performance and Air Distribution? - Part 3

During the summer of 2011 a study was conducted in a 66' wide tunnel-ventilated broiler house with 23, 52" tunnel fans to examine how tunnel fan placement affects average house air velocity and air distribution.  Five poles with three anemometers on each were evenly spaced across the width of the house approximately 100' from the tunnel fan end wall.  The anemometers were mounted on each pole two feet above the floor, two feet below the ceiling and 4.5' above the floor.  Each of the 15...

Categories: Tunnel ventilation
No. 3
May 2012
[title-raw] Relative Humidity...The Best Measure of Overall Poultry House Air Quality

Knowing how much to ventilate during cold weather is crucial to a poultry producer’s bottom line.  Ventilating too little can lead to poor air/litter quality, resulting in bird health and performance issues.  Ventilating too much can lead to drafty, dusty conditions and high heating costs.  To best determine minimum ventilation fan runtime, farm managers should ideally monitor the three most important air quality variables: carbon dioxide, ammonia and relative humidity.  Carbon dioxide is...

Categories:
Ammonia
Bird health
Environmental monitoring
Minimum ventilation
No. 2
February 2012
[title-raw] Best Performing Tunnel Fans - 2011

When building a new house or retrofitting an older one for tunnel ventilation, fan selection is one of the most, if not the most important decision a producer has to make.  A house’s fans are essentially the engine of the ventilation system and as a result have a significant effect on a producer’s ability to maintain the proper environmental conditions throughout the year.  Furthermore, with rising electricity prices selecting the right energy efficient fan can save a producer thousands of...

Categories:
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 1
January 2012
Volume: 23
[title-raw] Simple Chart to Help Determine Minimum Ventilation Rates

One of the keys to controlling poultry house litter moisture is to simply remove the same amount of moisture the birds are adding each day.  If you remove less than they are adding, moisture will start to build-up and eventually you will end up with caked litter and ammonia.  If you remove more, overtime you will tend to over dry the litter resulting in dusty conditions and high heating costs.
To accurately determine how much ventilation it takes to remove a gallon of water you first...

Categories:
Litter quality
Minimum ventilation
No. 12
December 2011
[title-raw] Minimizing Foot Pad Dermatitis & Maintaining Good Paw Quality

Paw sales are as lucrative as ever for the broiler industry.  Data from the USDA indicates that the US broiler industry exported $463 million in paws in 2010.  This is impressive, considering that about 20 years ago paws were part of offal and sent to rendering.  Now paw sales bring profits that no one back then could have imagined.  Not only is paw quality economically important to the poultry industry, but it is a point of inspection in animal welfare audits providing an indicator of how...

Categories:
Bird health
Litter quality
No. 11
November 2011
[title-raw] How Does Tunnel Fans Placement Affect Fan Performance and Air Distribution? - Part 2

Recently a study was conducted in a 50' wide tunnel-ventilated broiler house with 13, 52" tunnel fans to examine how tunnel fan placement affects average house air velocity and air distribution.  Five poles with three anemometers on each pole were placed across the width of the house approximately 100' from the tunnel fan end wall.  The anemometers were mounted on each pole two feet above the floor, two feet below the ceiling and 4.5' above the floor.  Each of the 15 anemometers were...

Categories:
Air speed
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 10
October 2011
[title-raw] How Does Tunnel Fans Placement Affect Fan Performance and Air Distribution? - Part 1

A common question for people building tunnel-ventilated houses is how tunnel fan location affects the air-moving capacity of tunnel fans.  Many believe that placing the tunnel fans in the end wall maximizes the air moving capacity of tunnel fans because the air doesn’t have to turn before exiting the house, while others believe that placing fans in the side walls near the end wall doesn’t adversely affect fan performance.
Recently a study was conducted in 60' wide tunnel-ventilated...

Categories:
Air speed
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 9
September 2011
[title-raw] Hot Circuit Breaker? A Fan is Not the Solution.

With market age birds the last thing a producer wants is for the main electrical panel circuit breaker to trip.  Though it often seems like it may happen without any warning, the truth is that in most cases there is a very clear indicator that an electrical breaker will trip sometime in the near future, namely because the breaker is hot.  Basically, an electrical circuit breaker operates on temperature. As the flow of electrical current through a breaker increases, so does the temperature of...

Categories:
Electrical
Hot weather management
No. 8
August 2011
[title-raw] Nighttime Cooling Pad Operation During Extremely Hot Weather

It is generally recommended that evaporative cooling pads should not be operated at night because the relative humidity of the air outside a poultry house tends to run 80% or higher at night.  Operating pads when the outside relative humidity is above 80% produces little cooling (less than 3oF) and tends to saturate the income air with moisture making it more difficult for the birds to cool themselves.
Outside air temperature and relative humidity are inversely related.  This means...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Hot weather management
No. 7
July 2011
[title-raw] Temperature Sensor/Thermostat Placement in Broiler-Breeder Houses

When placing fan temperature sensors/thermostats in broiler-breeder houses it is important to realize that the environment on the slats can be very different than that in the scratch area, especially during hot weather (Figures 1 and 2).  In tunnel ventilation mode, air speeds on the slats are typically half those in the scratch area, which leads to not only a reduced wind-chill effect for those birds on the slats, but lowered air exchange rates as well (Figure 3).  Relatively low air...

Categories:
Breeder
Environmental controllers
Hot weather management
No. 6
June 2011
[title-raw] Maximizing Air Movement over The Entire Bird During Hot Weather

In order to maximize bird cooling during hot weather it is crucial that birds remain evenly distributed throughout a house.  Though the air temperature at the inlet end of a tunnel house may often be three to five degrees cooler than at the fan end, the truth is that birds at the inlet end are often the hottest birds in a house due the fact that density is often the highest near the tunnel inlet as a result of bird migration.   The higher the density, the less surface area each bird has...

Categories:
Hot weather management
Tunnel ventilation
No. 5
May 2011
[title-raw] It is Difficult to Keep Birds Cool With Air Speed Alone

Digesting and metabolizing feed produces a considerable amount of heat.  For instance, a five-pound-broiler produces roughly the same amount of heat as a 20 watt light bulb.  Understanding how temperature, humidity, and wind speed affect a bird’s ability to rid itself of excess heat is essential when trying to determine how best to manage a tunnel ventilation system during hot weather.
A bird rids itself of excess heat in primarily two ways:  it gives off heat to the air around it (...

Categories:
Air speed
Hot weather management
No. 4
April 2011
[title-raw] Monitoring Litter Moisture

A major component of broiler management is maintaining good litter quality throughout the flock.  Litter quality is negatively influenced by moisture.  As litter moisture increases, litter quality decreases.  Factors that affect litter moisture include drinker management, bird health, bird density, ventilation rates, litter depth and litter type.  Typically broiler facilities are bedded with materials that have moisture content less than 10%.  Under normal conditions litter moisture at the...

Categories:
Environmental monitoring
Litter quality
No. 3
March 2011
[title-raw] Comparing Radiant Heating System Floor Heating Patterns

Radiant heating systems are by far the most common method of providing supplement heat to birds in poultry houses today.  What sets radiant heating systems apart from traditional hot air heating systems is the fact that roughly 50% of the heat energy produced by a radiant heater is delivered directly to the floor in the form of radiant heat.  Radiant heat from a heater produces a floor temperature gradient where floor temperatures directly underneath the heater may be 20 to 40oF above...

Categories: Heating systems
No. 2
February 2011
[title-raw] Blown Stabilized Fiberglass Vs. Blown Cellulose Insulation...2 ½ Years Post Installation

In August of 2008 a study was initiated to compare the long term integrity of blown stabilized fiberglass insulation (Stable R®, Guardian Building Products*) to traditional blown cellulose insulation (Figure 1).  Stabilized fiberglass insulation is a fiberglass insulation product with special binders that causes the fiberglass insulation to tend to stick together after it is installed (see the January, 2009 edition of Poultry Housing Tips).  Since blown stabilized fiberglass insulation was...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Insulation
No. 1
January 2011
[title-raw] Best Performing Tunnel Fans - 2011

When building a new house or retrofitting an older one for tunnel ventilation, fan selection is one of the most, if not the most important decision a producer has to make.  A house’s fans are essentially the engine of the ventilation system and as a result have a significant effect on a producer’s ability to maintain the proper environmental conditions throughout the year.  Furthermore, with rising electricity prices selecting the right energy efficient fan can save a producer thousands of...

Categories:
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 1
January 2012
Volume: 22
[title-raw] Best Performing Tunnel Fans - 2010

When building a new house or retrofitting an older one for tunnel ventilation, fan selection is one of the most, if not the most important decision a producer has to make.  A house’s fans are essentially the engine of the ventilation system and as a result have a significant effect on a producer’s ability to maintain the proper environmental conditions throughout the year.  Furthermore, with rising electricity prices selecting the right energy efficient fan can save a producer thousands of...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
No. 13
December 2010
[title-raw] Retrofitting Tunnel Houses to 600 ft/min can be Costly

Though keeping any market age bird cool on a hot summer day can prove to be a difficult task, for producers growing birds to an age of 50 or more days it can be especially challenging. Large broilers tend to be better feathered, less mobile, placed at a higher stocking density (lbs/ft2), and have less surface area per pound of weight than birds grown to a weight of four to five pounds. Because of these differences, research trials have indicated that a large broiler may require 50% or more...

Categories:
Air speed
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 12
November 2010
[title-raw] Improved Growth Rates can Make it Difficult to Control Litter Moisture

In the late 1950's it took approximately 50 days for a male broiler to reach a weight of 1.7 lbs. By the early 2000's the same weight could be reached at 21 days of age (Havenstein, et. al, 2003). Today it can be reached in as little as 18 days. One of the many challenges of managing today’s fast growing broilers is maintaining proper litter quality. In general, a fast growing bird consumes feed at a higher rate than a slower growing bird. For instance, from 2001 to 2007 feed consumption of...

Categories:
Ammonia
Litter quality
Water
No. 11
October 2010
[title-raw] Poultry House Tightness Charts

In order to control the environment within a poultry house it is essential that a producer not only controls how much air is entering the house, but where it is entering. For instance, during cold weather essentially no air should enter a house when the fans are off. When the fans are operating, all the air should enter through the air inlets so it can be directed along the ceiling toward the center of the house to insure it is tempered by the warm air next to the ceiling before moving down...

Categories: Tightness
No. 10
September 2010
[title-raw] Measuring Static Pressure in Tunnel-Ventilated Houses

In a tunnel-ventilated house static pressure is primarily an indicator of how hard the fans are having to work to pull air into and down the house. The higher the pressure the harder the fans have to work. As the level of work/static pressure increases, the amount of air moved by a fan decreases and power usage increases. For instance, increasing static pressure from 0.05" to 0.20" will tend to decrease the amount of air moved by a tunnel fan between 20 and 30%, while at the same time...

Categories:
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 9
August 2010
[title-raw] High Tunnel Air Velocities = High Static Pressures

In the early 1700's Daniel Bernoulli studied the relationship between pressure and velocity for a moving fluid. One of the basic laws of physics he uncovered was that pressure increased with the square of velocity. More simply put, if you double the velocity of a fluid, the pressure/work required to move a fluid through pipe or fitting increases four fold. Though you may not realize it, Bernoulli’s discovery nearly 300 years ago has a significant impact on our ability to keep birds cool...

Categories:
Air speed
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 8
July 2010
[title-raw] Wind Turbines and Tunnel Fans

Have you ever thought of placing wind turbines behind your tunnel fans to generate your own power? Many poultry producers have. Tunnel fans can operate thousands of hours each year generating wind speeds of 10 to 15 mph. So why can’t we use this wind to generate power to operate our fans, feeders or lights? The fact is that you can...the problem is that it is not very economically feasible.

Categories:
Alternative energy
Electrical
No. 7
June 2010
[title-raw] The Relationship Between Litter Moisture and Foot Pad Dermatitis

Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is a condition affecting broilers and turkeys and is known by a variety of names including pododermatitis and contact dermatitis. This condition is characterized by inflammation and necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads and toes. Deep ulcers may lead to abscesses and thickening of underlying tissues and structures. Prior to the mid 1980’s, chicken paws were of little economic value, and were rendered with feathers, blood, and other offal portions of...

Categories:
Bird health
Litter quality
No. 6
May 2010
[title-raw] A New Four Way Attic Inlet....A First Look

There is a new four way counter-weighted attic inlet (Eagan Sturdy Seal) that is very different from those traditionally installed in poultry houses (Figure 1). One of the things that makes the new inlet so different is that inlet openings are not created by individual counter-weighted blades, but by the entire bottom of the inlet as it drops vertically away from a 2" tall insulated box frame (Figures 2 and 3). The amount of opening is controlled by a single adjustable counterweight and...

Categories:
Attic inlets
Minimum ventilation
No. 5
April 2010
[title-raw] Two Way Attic Inlets

There are primarily two basic types of attic inlets used in broiler houses today, four way and two way. With a four way attic inlet fresh air exits through the four sides of the typically square inlet while with two way, the air exits on just two sides of a square or rectangular shaped inlet. The air is then directed along the ceiling to mix with the hot air produced by the birds and/or heating system before moving down to floor level. Though both types of inlets have proven to both improve...

Categories:
Attic inlets
Minimum ventilation
No. 4
April 2010
[title-raw] Are You Getting The Most Out of Your Attic Inlets?

Though attic inlets can potentially reduce poultry house fuel usage, perhaps the most significant advantage to their use is improved house air quality and litter conditions during cold weather. First, since attic temperatures during the day can be 20oF or higher than outside air temperature, the relative humidity of the air entering a house through a house’s attic space can be half as much as that entering through its side wall inlets thereby making it easier to remove house moisture....

Categories:
Attic inlets
Minimum ventilation
No. 3
March 2010
[title-raw] Simple Fixes Often Result in Substantial Fuel Savings

Leaky tunnel fan shutters can prove to be very costly during cold weather. Cold air leaking in through fan shutters not only results in excessive fuel usage and wet litter problems in the vicinity of the fans but also leads to problems throughout the house. For instance, excessive fresh air entering through leaky tunnel fan shutters can essentially rob the remainder of the house of fresh air resulting in air quality issues for birds far from the fans. Furthermore, when the tunnel fan end...

Categories: Energy conservation
No. 2
February 2010
[title-raw] Top Performing Tunnel Fans - 2010

When building a new house or retrofitting an older one for tunnel ventilation, fan selection is one of the most, if not the most important decision a producer has to make. A house’s fans are essentially the engine of the ventilation system and as a result have a significant effect on a producer’s ability to maintain the proper environmental conditions throughout the year. Furthermore, with rising electricity prices selecting the right energy efficient fan can save a producer thousands of...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
No. 1
January 2010
Volume: 21
[title-raw] Power Usage of Dimmed Incandescent Light Bulbs

Electronic dimmers have proven over the years to be an indispensable tool allowing poultry producers to precisely control lighting levels over the course of a flock. Though very effective in dimming incandescent light bulbs, many producers wonder if electronic dimmers are as effective in reducing lighting costs as they are in reducing lighting intensity. The fact is that power usage is does go down as incandescent lights are dimmed. The only problem is that the reduction in power usage is...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Lighting
No. 14
December 2009
[title-raw] Condensation Clouds

Condensation clouds are a fairly common site on poultry farms during cold weather. They allow us to see, for a brief moment, the typically invisible moisture that is in the air that surrounds us. The fact is that from a practical standpoint, there really is no such thing as “dry” air. All air contains some amount of invisible moisture. We generally describe how much moisture is in the air in terms of relative humidity. But we must keep in mind that the moisture holding ability of air is not...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Litter quality
Minimum ventilation
No. 13
December 2009
[title-raw] Cold, Humid Air is Lighter than Cold, Dry Air

Probably the vast majority of people on the street if you asked them would say that humid air is heavier than dry air. After all, humid air has more moisture in it and therefore should weigh more than air that contains less moisture. But, in actuality dry air weighs more than humid air (Figure 1). This is because moist air contains more water molecules which tend to displace oxygen and nitrogen molecules (actual oxygen levels in air are not significantly affected by humidity). Since a water...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Minimum ventilation
No. 12
November 2009
[title-raw] Biomass Heating Systems...Do They Make Economic Sense?

Though biomass heating systems have successfully proven their ability to heat a poultry house in the U.S. as well as other countries, there are still a number of details that have to be worked out before they are viewed by most as a viable alternative to traditional propane heating systems. The most significant of these issues has nothing to do with system construction, operation, or management but rather with economics. Quite simply, are biomass heating systems capable of producing a...

Categories:
Alternative energy
Energy conservation
Heating systems
No. 11
October 2009
[title-raw] Without Air Movement Evap. Cooling Pads Can Increase Bird Heat Stress

Though evaporative cooling is used around the world to keep birds cool during hot weather, by itself it is not a very effective method of reducing bird heat stress. To understand why, one must understand how a bird cools itself. Poultry feed is rich in energy/calories (similar in energy density to chocolate cake with frosting). The energy in the feed is used by the birds to grow, produce eggs, move, as well as, power the basic functions of life (breathing, pumping blood, maintaining body...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Hot weather management
No. 10
September 2009
[title-raw] Broiler Breeder Cool Cell Operation

Figure 1 illustrates a fairly typical water consumption pattern for a 40' X 500' broiler breeder house with approximately 10,000 birds. When the lights are off at night the birds drink little if any water. When the birds are fed first thing in the morning there is a peak in water consumption that lasts a couple of hours. Water consumption plateaus for the remainder of the afternoon then slowly drops off as the birds gradually stop drinking water in anticipation of the lights shutting off at...

Categories:
Breeder
Evaporative cooling
Hot weather management
No. 9
August 2009
[title-raw] The Importance of Flushing Evaporative Cooling System

One of the best ways of insuring maximum pad life as well as bird cooling is to simply flush your evaporative cooling system on a regular basis. Tens of thousands of gallons of water can evaporate from a poultry house’s evaporative cooling system each week during hot weather. A potential problem lies in the fact that only pure water evaporates from the evaporative cooling pads. Any minerals and/or contaminates in the water do not. Over time as these contaminates concentrate in the water,...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 8
July 2009
[title-raw] Evaporative Cooling Pad Myths and Facts

There are a number of misconceptions about the operation of evaporative cooling pads that can result in warmer birds and reduced pad life. The most common of these are:

“A pad produces the most amount of cooling just before it dries out.”
“Water running over a pad reduces the cooling produced by the pad.”
“Cooling is improved by operating a pad system off a ten-minute interval timer.”

The primary reason for these misconceptions is a basic misunderstanding of...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Hot weather management
No. 7
June 2009
[title-raw] Is Your Water System Designed for Peak Demand?

Water availability is an increasingly common problem on a number of broiler farms during hot weather. The biggest contributor to this situation is the increasing use of evaporative cooling pads. The typical six-inch evaporative cooling pad system can, at times, use 20% more water than a fogging pad system and four times the water of a traditional interior fogging system. But, an interesting fact is that over the course of a day the evaporative cooling system typically uses less water than...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Water
No. 6
May 2009
[title-raw] How Much Water Does a Broiler House Use

Water is a crucial commodity when it comes to producing broilers. From the day they are placed until the day they are sold a broiler will drink approximately a quart of water every pound of feed consumed. If an average life time feed conversion of 1.75 is assumed, this means that it takes a little less than a half of a gallon of water for every pound of bird grown. To put this in perspective, on a farm where a four-pound-broiler is grown the birds in each 40' X 500' house will consume...

Categories: Water
No. 5
April 2009
[title-raw] Alternative Heating Systems - Heating Cost Analysis

For the past 18 months extension engineers and poultry scientists from the University of Georgia as well as an engineer from the Georgia Forestry Commission have been studying a fairly typical hot-air alternative heating system on a commercial broiler farm in Northeast Georgia. A significant portion of the first year of the study was spent on optimizing the hot air distribution systems, modifying the furnace so that it could burn a wider variety of fuels, improving the control of the fuel...

Categories:
Alternative energy
Energy conservation
Heating systems
No. 4
March 2009
[title-raw] Alternative Heating Systems - Heating System Efficiency

Though with rising propane prices traditional propane heating systems are becoming increasingly expensive to operate, we sometimes forget that there are a number of good reasons why brooders, furnaces, and tube heaters have been used for decades to keep our poultry houses warm during cold weather. Propane heating systems are relatively inexpensive to purchase, easy to maintain, and most importantly, very energy efficient. Yes, very energy efficient nearly 100%. This fact becomes very...

Categories:
Alternative energy
Energy conservation
Heating systems
No. 3
March 2009
[title-raw] Hot-Air Alternative Heating System Study - Hot Air Distribution

Over the past decade substantial strides had been made by the broiler industry in reducing overall broiler house fuel usage. With the advent of totally-enclosed houses, circulation fans, radiant heaters, attic inlets, modern controllers, and the increasing popularity of wide houses, propane usage on many farms has been decreased by 50% or more. The problem is that even though fuel usage may have decreased, overall heating costs have increased due to the simple fact that the cost of propane...

Categories:
Alternative energy
Energy conservation
Heating systems
No. 2
February 2009
[title-raw] Blown Stabilized Fiberglass Insulation

Having quality ceiling insulation is of significant benefit to poultry producers year round. During cold weather, hot air produced by the brooders, furnaces and the birds quickly rises towards the ceiling. If the ceiling is not properly insulated, this valuable heat will pass through it, resulting in lower house temperatures and higher heating costs. Conversely, during summertime, ceiling insulation keeps the amount of heat entering the house through the ceiling to a minimum. On a hot summer...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Insulation
No. 1
January 2009
Volume: 20
[title-raw] Alternative Heating Systems...an overview

Record high propane/natural gas prices over the last couple of years have lead a number of producers and poultry companies to explore the possibility of using some type of alternative fuel to provide heat to their poultry houses during cold weather. Though not commonly seen in the U.S. there are in fact a number of alternative heating systems on the market today that can be used to dramatically reduce a poultry producer’s dependence on propane. These systems range in price from less than $10...

Categories:
Alternative energy
Energy conservation
Heating systems
No. 14
December 2008
[title-raw] Best Performing Tunnel Fans - 2008

When building a new house or retrofitting an older one for tunnel ventilation, fan selection is one of the most, if not the most important decision a producer has to make. A house’s fans are essentially the engine of the ventilation system and as a result have a significant effect on a producer’s ability to maintain the proper environmental conditions throughout the year. Furthermore, with rising electricity prices selecting the right energy efficient fan can save a producer thousands of...

Categories:
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 13
November 2008
[title-raw] Do You Know Your Water Quality

In the above picture, which water sample is the worst? The question you have to ask is are you sure? The clear water sample could have compounds in the solution that we cannot see. When people think about nutrition, things like amino acids, carbohydrates, fat, and energy content come to mind. Nutritionists pay a great deal of attention to feed composition and quality. However, water is also a nutrient that deserves attention as well but for many years has been ignored. When so much attention...

Categories:
Bird health
Water
No. 12
October 2008
[title-raw] Why Litter Treatments are a Good Investment

If you want to lower the cost of keeping your birds warm during cold weather you have to limit the amount of cold air that is entering your house. It is as simple as that. The more fresh air you bring into your house either unintentionally or intentionally the higher your heating costs will be. The table below shows how many gallons of propane have to be burned to heat various volumes of fresh air based on the difference between inside and outside temperature. For example, if you are...

Categories:
Ammonia
Cold weather management
No. 11
September 2008
[title-raw] Loose Fitting Curtains are Very Costly

When it comes to keeping heating costs to a minimum, poultry producers must keep in mind that though the amount of side wall and ceiling insulation in a house is important, house tightness is of far greater importance. Think of it this way, the insulation value of a single pane glass window in a dwelling house is next to nothing. Though it would be advantageous to replace a single pane window with a double pane window, the simple fact of the matter is it is far more important to simply keep...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Tightness
No. 10
September 2008
[title-raw] Attic Inlets - Summertime Operation

Many producers when they first learn of attic inlets think they are something that can only be used during the cooler times of year.  There is often concern that if attic inlets are not kept closed during the warmer times of the year they could potentially end up “cooking” the birds in a house.  The truth is that there are many benefits of using attic inlets during the warmer times of the year and, that with a couple of simple tricks, a producer will not ever have to worry about their attic...

Categories:
Air inlets
Attic inlets
Hot weather management
No. 9
August 2008
[title-raw] Thermometers/Sensors Do Not Measure Effective Air Temperature

You have market age birds on a hot summer day. All your fans are running as well as your evaporative cooling pads. You check your house temperature and it is running 84oF.The birds appear comfortable. Seeing all those fans running you start to think about this month’s upcoming power bill. It is probably going to be a big one. You wonder if you could shut off a couple of fans and save some power without sacrificing house temperature. You try it. Surprisingly enough, the house temperature only...

Categories:
Environmental monitoring
Hot weather management
Tunnel ventilation
No. 8
July 2008
[title-raw] Evaporative Cooling Pad Quality Makes a Difference

Six-inch evaporative cooling pad systems are a vital part of a tunnel-ventilated poultry house’s cooling system. When properly installed and maintained, a six-inch pad system can reduce the incoming air temperature on a hot summer day 20oF or more, dramatically reducing heat-stress-related problems. Furthermore, six-inch pad systems have virtually eliminated the need for interior fogging nozzles which has resulted in cleaner houses, increased equipment life, and reduced risk of electrical...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 7
June 2008
[title-raw] Monitoring Poultry House Power Usage

With rising electrical rates, as well as the trend toward increased tunnel fan capacity to keep large broilers cool during hot weather, poultry producers are more concerned than ever about keeping their power bills to a minimum. One of the keys in managing poultry house power usage is knowing precisely how much power a house is using on any given day. The fact is that producers often make incorrect assumptions when it comes power usage because they have no information on how much they are...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Environmental monitoring
No. 6
May 2008
[title-raw] Bird Migration

There are a two facts to remember when it comes to hot weather and tunnel-ventilated houses: First, the birds in the house will, over time, migrate towards the tunnel inlet end of the house if not prevented from doing so. This is true whether talking about broilers, broiler-breeders, pullets, or turkeys. It is basically in their nature to walk into a breeze. It doesn’t matter whether it is a dark house, cool cell house, fogging pad house, fogging nozzle house, or for that matter a naturally...

Categories:
Hot weather management
Tunnel ventilation
No. 5
April 2008
[title-raw] Time for an Electrical System Check-up

With hot weather quickly approaching this is the time of year to give your licensed electrician a call to schedule a check-up of your farm’s electrical systems. As with fans, pads, curtains, etc. a house’s electrical system should have periodic maintenance to avoid costly situations. One of the primary things an electrician should check are the quality of the connections in each of the farm’s service panels and disconnects. Over time the connections can become loose or corroded which leads...

Categories:
Electrical
Environmental monitoring
No. 4
March 2008
[title-raw] Migration Fences Should be Used During Cold Weather

Maintaining uniform bird density throughout the broiler house is important year round. Most producers are conscious about putting up migration fences during hot weather when bird migration generally can lead to significant variations in bird density between the fan and inlet ends of a tunnel-ventilated house. However, the use of migration fences is not the norm during the winter months. Even though bird migration may not be as dramatic in cold weather, if birds are not distributed evenly, it...

Categories: Cold weather management
No. 3
February 2008
[title-raw] Tunnel-Ventilated Broiler House Fan Comparison Spreadsheet - 2008

As covered in a number of past newsletters, selecting the right tunnel fan for a new house or one that is being retrofitted to tunnel ventilation is one of the most important decisions a producer has to make. The right tunnel fan will not only insure maximum bird cooling during hot weather, but can lower fan operating costs 25% or more, resulting in thousands of dollars in savings each year. Trying to compare tunnel fans may seem like a nearly impossible task. First you have to figure out...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 2
January 2008
[title-raw] Best Performing Tunnel Fans - 2007

When building a new house or retrofitting an older one for tunnel ventilation, fan selection is one of the most, if not the most important decision a producer has to make. A house’s fans are essentially the engine of the ventilation system and as a result have a significant effect on a producer’s ability to maintain the proper environmental conditions throughout the year. Furthermore, with rising electricity prices selecting the right energy efficient fan can save a producer thousands of...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
No. 1
January 2008
Volume: 19
[title-raw] Basic Attic Inlet Operation

Balancing air/litter quality with propane usage during cold weather has always a been challenge for poultry producers. But now, with the price of propane climbing to over two dollars a gallon, what before was a challenge, for many now seems to be nearly impossible. Attic inlets are looked upon by many as a possible partial solution to this dilemma. Though attic inlets do have the potential to decrease the cost of heating a poultry house, their most significant impact has been that by pulling...

Categories:
Attic inlets
Energy conservation
Minimum ventilation
No. 13
December 2007
[title-raw] High Capacity Tunnel Fans Decrease Producer Profits!

Most fan manufacturers sell standard and high capacity versions of the many of their tunnel fan models. High capacity versions of tunnel fans typically move approximately 10% more air than the standard version thus allowing 10% fewer fans to be installed to achieve the desired tunnel wind speed. Though on the surface this appears to be a winning proposition, the problem is that high capacity fans use disproportionally more power than the standard versions. The end result is though you...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 12
November 2007
[title-raw] What Does it Take to Keep Large Broilers Cool During Hot Weather?

There is a growing market in the U.S. for broilers in 7 ½ to 8 ½ pound range. Though there are many challenges producing such a large broiler minimizing heat stress related problems is often placed at the top of the list. Obviously to grow such a large bird the house will need to be tunnel-ventilated, but how much wind speed should the house be designed for? A number of studies conducted at the USDA Poultry Research Laboratory at Mississippi State have found significant improvements in...

Categories:
Air speed
Hot weather management
Tunnel ventilation
No. 11
October 2007
[title-raw] Minimizing Poultry House Odors

Poultry houses, like all animal housing, can emit odors which some nearby neighbors may find offensive from time to time. Though it is basically impossible to eliminate all odors there are a number of things farm managers can do that will help to minimize odor emissions from their poultry houses. Planting trees, for instance, around a poultry house has been shown to reduce odor. In some cases, producers have found constructing a wall around exhaust fans to direct air upward has diminished...

Categories: Emissions
No. 10
September 2007
[title-raw] Frequently Asked Questions About Counter-Weighted Attic Inlets

As covered in past Poultry Housing Tips counter-weighted attic inlets have shown to be a very effective method of ventilating broiler houses during cooler times of the year. Though there is still much research that needs to be conducted on their use in poultry houses, the following are answers to some of the more frequently asked questions:

Categories:
Attic inlets
Energy conservation
Minimum ventilation
No. 9
August 2007
[title-raw] Water System Check-Up

When was the last time a check was conducted on the farm water system? If the answer to this question is “I don’t know” then it is something that should be conducted right away. The house and farm water system should be checked on a regular basis to ensure that adequate quantity and quality water is available. Water, along with temperature management, good air quality, clean formulated feed and protection from disease are the five basic needs of poultry to optimize bird performance. Water...

Categories: Water
No. 8
July 2007
[title-raw] Evaluating Tunnel Ventilation System Performance...Are You Ready for Hot Weather?

Quite often producers’ ability to keep their market age birds cool on a hot summer day has more to do with what they did before the chicks rather what they are doing that particular day. The fact is that much of the basic maintenance required to insure maximum bird cooling in a tunnel-ventilated house is difficult to do once the birds are placed, especially once they reach market age. The following provides a guide as to how to evaluate the maintenance status of a tunnel-ventilated house in...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Exhaust fans
Maintenance
No. 7
June 2007
[title-raw] Broiler Farm Water Usage and Pipe Sizing Rules of Thumb

Total peak house water usage can be determined by adding together the maximum potential water usage of the pad system, interior fogging nozzles and the birds.

Total Peak House Water Usage = Pads + Fogging Nozzles + Birds

Total farm peak water usage can then be determined by simply adding together the total peak house water usage of all the houses on the farm.

Total Peak Farm Water Usage = Total Peak House Water Usage X Number of Houses

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Water
No. 6
May 2007
[title-raw] Attic Inlets...Cold Weather Performance in 50' Wide, Totally Enclosed Houses

As discussed in last month’s Poultry Housing Tips, an inlet that draws air from the attic space of a dropped ceiling house during cold weather has a number of potential advantages over traditional side wall inlets. The most valuable of which is that attic temperatures are often significantly higher than outside temperatures even during cold weather. By drawing in preheated air from the attic space, ventilation rates should be able to be increased, leading to improved air quality, drier...

Categories:
Attic inlets
Energy conservation
Minimum ventilation
No. 5
April 2007
[title-raw] Using Non-contact Thermometers

Non-contact or “infrared” thermometers have proven to be a very effective tool for poultry producers with a wide variety of uses. They can be used to measure floor temperatures during brooding, to check for overheating circuit breakers during hot weather, or to evaluate the condition of ceiling and/or side wall insulation. Though the potential benefits from being able to measure various surface temperatures within a poultry house are numerous, it is important that the user understands some...

Categories: Environmental monitoring
No. 4
March 2007
[title-raw] Carbon Monoxide Measuring and Monitoring

Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas that is produced by brooders and furnaces when they are not operating properly that can lead to sickness and death for both humans and poultry. The reason that carbon monoxide is so dangerous is because it has a 200 time greater binding affinity for blood hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen through blood, than does oxygen. Thus carbon monoxide can prevent transport of oxygen from the lungs to body tissues.

Categories: Environmental monitoring
No. 3
March 2007
[title-raw] Attic Inlets....A First Look

A modern broiler house has two very different inlet systems: traditional side wall inlets and tunnel inlets. The tunnel inlets of course are for use during hot weather when we are trying to cool our birds, while the side wall inlets are for the remainder of the year when we are in general trying to conserve bird heat. The question is, do we need a third inlet system? The fact is that the 50 to 100 inlets the typical house has are best suited for mild weather with large birds. If we really...

Categories:
Attic inlets
Cold weather management
Minimum ventilation
No. 2
February 2007
[title-raw] Minimum Ventilation Rates

Knowing how much to ventilate during cold weather is crucial to a producer’s bottom line. Ventilating too little can lead to poor air/litter quality, resulting in bird health and performance issues. Ventilating too much can lead to drafty conditions and high heating costs. The first step to knowing how much you need to ventilate during cold weather is to understand which air quality variables are most likely to cause problems. In short, the three primary air quality variables poultry...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Litter quality
Minimum ventilation
No. 1
January 2007
Volume: 18
[title-raw] Reducing Ammonia Levels During Brooding

Your chicks have just arrived and the level of ammonia in your house seems a little stronger than you would ideally like it to be. Your serviceman arrives and checks the ammonia concentration with a draw tube and finds that it is over 50 ppm. You are already operating a couple of 36" fans one minute out of five and are not crazy about the thought of increasing your fan run time considering the fact that it is supposed to be below freezing tonight and propane is over $1.50 per gallon. What do...

Categories:
Ammonia
Minimum ventilation
No. 12
December 2006
[title-raw] Best Performing Tunnel Fans - 2006

As discussed in last May’s issue of Poultry Housing Tips selecting the right tunnel fans when building a new house or retrofitting an older one for tunnel ventilation is one of the most important tasks a producer has. A house’s fans are essentially the engine of the ventilation system and as a result have a significant effect on a producer’s ability to keep their birds cool and energy costs to a minimum during hot weather. When purchasing tunnel fans it is crucial that a producer compares...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
Tunnel ventilation
No. 11
November 2006
[title-raw] Circulation Fans for Open Ceiling Houses

Circulation fans have proven to be very effective in reducing fuel usage, promoting drier litter, and minimizing hot and cold spots in broiler houses during cold weather. The key to obtaining maximum benefit from circulation fans is making sure that you install a circulation fan system. That is, you should install circulation fans in such a way so they work together as a unit to thoroughly, yet gently, mix the air in the house not only from ceiling to floor but from end to end, on a...

Categories:
Circulation fans
Energy conservation
No. 10
October 2006
[title-raw] Using Water Consumption as a Management Tool.

Water is considered an essential nutrient. While an animal can survive for a week or so without food, water deprivation can only be tolerated for a few days. Water is important for a variety of bodily functions that include but are not limited to nutrient transportation, body temperature regulation, lubrication of joints and organs, enzymatic/chemical processes including those related to feed digestion. A large number of factors can influence water usage in the bird’s body and include...

Categories: Water
No. 9
September 2006
[title-raw] Does Chilling Water Circulating Over Pad Systems Increase Cooling?

In short, “no”. The truth is that the cooling produced by an evaporative cooling system is due almost totally to the evaporation of water into the air and has very little to do with the actual temperature of the water being evaporated. Hot water, cold water, lukewarm water, simply doesn’t matter. The laws of physics say it takes 8,340 Btu’s to evaporate one gallon of water. So, when we evaporate a gallon of water into the air coming into a poultry house using either pads or fogging nozzles,...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 8
August 2006
[title-raw] Local Thunderstorms and Their Effect on Poultry House Cooling

On a hot, summer day a localized thunderstorm can be a benefit or a problem for a poultry producer, depending on what happens after the rain ends. On the typical summer morning the outside air temperature will be around 70oF in most poultry growing areas of the U.S. with a relative humidity around 90%. As the day progresses the outside temperature will increase and the relative humidity will decrease due to the fact that moisture-holding ability of air increases with temperature. In fact,...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Hot weather management
No. 7
July 2006
[title-raw] Six-inch Pad System Water Usage and Pipe Sizing

One of the keys to making sure you can keep your birds cool during hot weather is to make sure that you have sufficient water capacity. Insufficient water in a broiler house can result in significant economic losses not only from not having enough water for bird consumption but not having enough water to keep the birds cool on hot days. Though the birds in a modern broiler house can drink a significant amount of water, the biggest user of water is a house’s evaporative cooling pad system....

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Water
No. 6
June 2006
[title-raw] The Best Performing Fans - 2005

Selecting the right fan when building a new house or retrofitting an older one for tunnel ventilation is one of the most important tasks a producer has. A house’s fans are essentially the engine of the ventilation system and as a result have a significant effect on a producer’s ability to keep their birds cool and energy costs to a minimum during hot weather.

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
No. 5
May 2006
[title-raw] Fresh Bedding...Cool Chicks

There is a common misconception that one of the reasons that it is sometimes harder to brood on fresh bedding than built-up litter is that there is a significant amount of heat produced by built-up litter making the floors warmer than houses with new bedding. The fact of the matter is that though built-up litter can produce a little heat through composting (which by the way has the negative effect of producing ammonia) the real reason why it is sometimes easier to brood birds on built-up...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Heating systems
Litter quality
No. 4
April 2006
[title-raw] A Loose Brooding Curtain Can be Costly

One of the most common causes for fuel wastage, chilled chicks and damp litter near the brooding curtain during brooding is a loose fitting brooding curtain. Cold air entering the brooding end from the colder nonbrooding end around loose fitting brooding curtains tends to quickly drop to the floor creating a cool spot that can extend 40 or more feet into the brooding area. Since cold air can hold less moisture than warm air less moisture is removed from the litter in this area of the house...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Energy conservation
Tightness
No. 3
March 2006
[title-raw] 1/15 hp Circulation Fan Update

Over the last couple of years 1/15 hp circulation fans have been installed on hundreds of farms across the U.S. The vast majority of producers have found the fans to reduce fuel usage, keep house temperatures more uniform, and improve litter conditions. As with any new product, a number of lessons have been learned as to how to get the most out of 1/15 hp circulation fans. The following are a few points to consider when installing and operating 1/15 hp circulation fans:

Categories:
Circulation fans
Energy conservation
No. 2
February 2006
[title-raw] New Method of Totally Enclosing Curtain-Sided Broiler Houses

Though many producers may want to totally enclose their curtain-sided houses to minimize heating costs as well as increase their ability to precisely control the environment within their houses, there is a common obstacle - cost. For instance, taking a traditional stud-wall house and placing metal sheeting on the outside, filling the wall with fiberglass batt insulation, installing an interior vapor barrier, then covering the interior with plywood can cost nearly $10,000 for a 500' house....

Categories:
Energy conservation
Insulation
No. 1
January 2006
Volume: 17
[title-raw] The Best Way to Reduce Your Heating Costs is not to Change Your Heating System

With record high propane prices, many producers are questioning if there is a less expensive fuel they can use to heat their poultry houses. There are in fact a number of alternative fuels that have been successfully used for a number of years to heat poultry houses at a significantly lower cost. Some of the alternative fuels that are presently being used include coal, wood, hay, used motor oil and even corn. Producers with many of these systems have found that not only have they been able...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Heating systems
No. 13
December 2005
[title-raw] Darkling Beetles....Costs and Control

Darkling beetles, whose larvae are referred to as lesser mealworms, are a common sight in broiler houses. Though it is generally accepted that when poultry consume beetles and lesser mealworms, weight gains and feed conversions will be adversely affected, there are no scientific studies confirming this assumption. Even though a direct link between beetle infestation and weight gains and feed conversions may be in question, the fact remains that poultry should not eat darkling beetles. It is...

Categories: Pests
No. 12
November 2005
[title-raw] Totally Enclosing Curtain-Sided Houses Using Polyurethane Spray Foam

By far the most effective method of reducing the cost of heating a curtain-sided house is to convert it to a totally enclosed house. Side wall curtains have a very low insulation R-value, approximately 1.5 Fo*ft2 /Btu’s/hr, and as a result are typically responsible for more than 25% of the heat loss from a poultry house during cold weather. Furthermore, side wall curtains are the number one source of air leakage in curtain-sided houses further contributing to a house’s heat loss. When a...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Insulation
No. 11
October 2005
[title-raw] Preparing For Cold Weather - House Tightness

With cold weather right around the corner and predictions of record high fuel prices, now is the time to get your houses ready for cold weather. There are a number of things you can do to your houses that do not cost a lot that can help to keep your fuel bills to a minimum, the most important of which is making sure your houses are as tight as possible. The tighter a house is the less expensive it will be to heat. Increasing house tightness not only minimizes the amount of heat loss when the...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Tightness
No. 10
September 2005
[title-raw] Maximizing Nighttime Bird Cooling

Nighttime cooling is an important aspect of maximizing bird performance during hot weather. Even in the best houses there will be days when the birds will become heat stressed. If the ventilation system is well designed and maintained, increased bird mortality will not typically become an issue but weight gains and feed conversions can be adversely affected. How much performance will be affected on these days will depend to a large extent on how the ventilation system is managed at night. If...

Categories:
Hot weather management
Tunnel ventilation
No. 9
August 2005
[title-raw] The Importance of Nighttime Wind Speed During Hot Weather

It is a hot, humid summer afternoon and you have older birds. All the tunnel fans are running as are the evaporative cooling pads. You cleaned your fan shutters and the belts were recently replaced. You have checked your pads and they are wetting evenly and appear fairly clean. Your migration barriers are up and the birds are fairly well distributed throughout the house. Even with all your efforts house temperatures are still in the mid to high eighties and most of the birds are panting. You...

Categories:
Air speed
Hot weather management
No. 8
July 2005
[title-raw] Migration Barriers

Bird migration is a common frustration when it comes to managing tunnel-ventilated houses. Why do birds migrate towards the inlet end of tunnel-ventilated houses? It is not due to the fact that the incoming air is cooler, because birds will migrate in a tunnel-fog house where the air is typically hotter at the inlet end than at the fan end. It is not because it is darker or lighter at the inlet end, because birds will migrate in clear curtain houses with evaporative cooling pads where it is...

Categories:
Hot weather management
Tunnel ventilation
No. 7
June 2005
[title-raw] Maximizing Bird Cooling Through Maintaining Uniform Bird Distribution

One of the most important keys to optimizing broiler performance during hot weather is making sure the birds are uniformly distributed from one end of the house to the other. Having more birds at one end than another can lead to a variety of problems including insufficient water/feeder space for those birds on the crowded end of the house, increased incidence of scratches, and reduced litter quality. Though these are of course potentially costly problems, the most costly aspect of not having...

Categories:
Hot weather management
Tunnel ventilation
No. 6
May 2005
[title-raw] Radiant Tube Heater Floor Heating Patterns

Radiant tube heaters are the latest heating system to come on the market for use in poultry houses. They are in many ways the next logical step in the trend towards increasing the size of the radiant heat zone produced by an individual brooder. By increasing the coverage area of an individual brooder not only can the number of brooders be reduced, but overall floor space receiving radiant heat can often be increased at the same time. A radiant tube heater consists of a metal tube...

Categories: Heating systems
No. 5
April 2005
[title-raw] Potential Problems with Blown Insulation in Dropped Ceiling Houses

Having quality ceiling insulation is of significant benefit to poultry producers year round. During cold weather, hot air produced by the brooders, furnaces and the birds quickly rises towards the ceiling. If the ceiling is not properly insulated, this valuable heat will pass through it, resulting in lower house temperatures and higher heating costs. Conversely, during summertime, ceiling insulation keeps the amount of heat entering the house through the ceiling to a minimum. On a hot summer...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Insulation
No. 4
March 2005
[title-raw] Do Lower Brooding Temperatures Save You Money?

It’s a fairly typical winter day in the Southeast; it is 50o F and tonight it is going to drop to around 30oF. You are getting chicks today and while, you typically would start off with a house temperature of 92oF and drop it to 85oF by day seven, you just paid last flocks fuel bill and would like to save some money. So you decide to start off with a house temperature of 88oF. The question is are you going to significantly reduce your heating costs?

Categories: Cold weather management
No. 3
March 2005
[title-raw] Stratification During Brooding

Temperature stratification occurs during brooding due to the simple fact that hot air is lighter than cold air. Though we are all well aware of the existence of stratification, we often underestimate the amount of stratification in a house due to the simple fact that we cannot “see” air temperature. Of course we monitor house temperature through the use of thermometers and environmental controller sensors, but the fact is that they are often unintentionally positioned at a height that does...

Categories:
Circulation fans
Cold weather management
No. 2
February 2005
[title-raw] Understanding Radiant Brooders

One of the keys to providing optimal house/floor temperatures while keeping heating costs to a minimum during cold weather is to understand how a heating system actually heats a house. Forced air furnaces are quite simple to understand. A forced air furnace pulls air from the house, heats it up, and then blows it back in to the house. How radiant brooders, and conventional brooders for that matter, heat a house is a little more involved. Though they produce a fair amount of hot air, which...

Categories: Heating systems
No. 1
January 2005
Volume: 16
[title-raw] Air Leakage and Litter Caking

Though during cold weather litter caking is typically caused by under ventilation, in some cases litter caking can be caused by localized over ventilation, more commonly know as leakage. Cold air entering through a crack in the side wall, loose fitting curtain/tunnel curtain, or fan shutter, quickly falls to the floor leading a cold spot in the house. The cold spot can lead to litter caking in a couple of different ways. First, since cold air has very little moisture-holding ability, very...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Litter quality
Tightness
No. 13
December 2004
[title-raw] Static Pressure Testing

In order to control the environment within a poultry house it is essential that a producer not only controls how much air is entering the house, but where it is entering. For instance, during cold weather essentially no air should enter a house when the fans are off. When the fans are operating, all the air should enter through the air inlets so it can be directed along the ceiling toward the center of the house to insure it is tempered by the warm air next to the ceiling before moving down...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Tightness
No. 12
November 2004
[title-raw] European Style Air Inlets...A First Look

When it comes to the modern broiler house there have been significant advancements in virtually all the components of the environmental control system. Tunnel fans have progressed from simple 48" box fans to state of the art 50"+ fans with discharge cones, interior shutters shaped like air foils, and high efficiency motors. The combination of these changes has increased the overall energy efficiency of tunnel fans by as much as 50% over the last ten years. Poultry house evaporative cooling...

Categories:
Air inlets
Negative pressure ventilation
No. 11
October 2004
[title-raw] Keeping Poultry House Heating Costs to a Minimum

Keeping heating costs to a minimum has always been a goal for poultry producers during the winter months. This year with propane prices already well over a dollar a gallon, producers will have to work harder than ever to keep their heating bills manageable while at the same time trying to maximize bird performance.

Categories:
Cold weather management
Energy conservation
No. 10
September 2004
[title-raw] Are Your Fan Pulleys Properly Aligned?

One aspect of fan maintenance that is often overlooked is fan pulley alignment. In order to maximize belt life and fan performance it is important that the motor and fan hub pulley are in line with one another. If the motor pulley and fan hub pulleys are not in perfect alignment the belt will twist which causes the belt to wear unevenly. The accelerated belt wear not only leads to reduced air moving capacity but also increases maintenance costs due to the fact that a belt that might have...

Categories:
Exhaust fans
Maintenance
No. 9
August 2004
[title-raw] Air Speed Distribution in Tunnel-Ventilated Houses - Part 3 Layer Houses

As discussed in the previous newsletters in this series, in order to insure uniform bird cooling in a tunnel-ventilated house air speed throughout the house needs to be as uniform as possible. Side wall smoothness and equipment installation can have a significant effect on air flow patterns within a tunnel-ventilated broiler house and therefore affect bird cooling. Though broiler houses make up the majority of tunnel-ventilated houses, tunnel ventilation is also widely used in broiler-...

Categories:
Air speed
Tunnel ventilation
No. 8
August 2004
[title-raw] Electronic Tachometers

Though evaporative cooling pads and fogging nozzles are an important part of any tunnel ventilation system, it is important to keep in mind that it is in fact the fans that provide the majority of the cooling during hot weather. It is the air speed created by the tunnel fans that extracts heat from the birds, pulls trapped heat from between the birds, aids in litter drying, and last but not least, insures uniform air temperatures from end to end. Quite simply put, it is the air moving...

Categories:
Exhaust fans
Maintenance
No. 7
July 2004
[title-raw] Air Speed Distribution in Tunnel-Ventilated Houses - Part 2

As discussed in Part 1 (Volume 16 Number 4) air speed uniformity and therefore cooling is significantly affected by the smoothness of the side walls in a tunnel-ventilated house. Side wall posts or exposed studs can discourage air from moving along the side wall leading to a variation in air speed between the center and the side wall of a house of 30% or more. Since the relationship between air speed and cooling produced is exponential in nature, a 30% difference in air speed can result in...

Categories:
Air speed
Tunnel ventilation
No. 6
June 2004
[title-raw] Controlling Cooling Produced by Six-Inch Pad Systems

One of the challenges with six-inch evaporative cooling pad systems is controlling the amount of cooling they produce. With fogging systems or fogging-pad systems cooling can be controlled by simply limiting the number of fogging nozzles operating; i.e., half the nozzles, half the cooling. But with six-inch pad systems controlling cooling is not that simple. One problem is that a pad system’s circulation pump can put a large amount of water on the pads in a very short period of time. For...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 5
May 2004
[title-raw] Air Speed Distribution in Tunnel-Ventilated Houses - Part 1

To produce the desired level of cooling during hot weather most broiler houses today are being designed to obtain a wind speed of between 500 and 600 ft/min. It is important to realize that a design air speed is an average air speed. Air speed will vary significantly across the cross-section of a house. Air speeds will tend to be higher in the center of the house than along the side walls and higher at the ceiling than near the floor. The reason for the variation is due to the fact that air...

Categories:
Air speed
Tunnel ventilation
No. 4
April 2004
[title-raw] Comparing Heating Costs - Natural Gas Vs. Propane

With the deregulation of the natural gas industry in many states it has become increasingly difficult to compare the cost of heating a house with natural gas vs. propane. For the most part propane pricing is fairly straightforward. A producer is given a per gallon price that is either fixed or that will vary throughout the year based on market rates and possibly usage. Natural gas pricing on the other hand can be quite involved. First, a producer is charged a per therm of gas used (1 therm...

Categories: Heating systems
No. 3
March 2004
[title-raw] Lighting Poultry Houses with Incandescent Bulbs

Though fluorescent lights are much more energy efficient and last longer than incandescent lights, they have one major weakness: they tend to be difficult as well as expensive to dim to the levels most producers desire. To gain maximum control over light intensity throughout the life of a flock, many producers who were using compact fluorescent lights in the past are finding themselves switching to incandescent light bulbs. With incandescent bulbs, a producer can start a flock with a high...

Categories: Lighting
No. 2
February 2004
[title-raw] Brooder Gas Hose Support Springs

A potential problem with brooders of all types is that the flexible gas line supplying the brooder can pinch partially closed where it attaches to the control valve. This can present a number of problems. First, and most obviously, a pinched hose can reduce gas flow to the brooder reducing heat output of the brooder, leading to cool chicks in the vicinity of the brooder. Reduced gas flow to a brooder can lead to poor flame quality, increasing the possibility for the production of carbon...

Categories:
Heating systems
Maintenance
No. 1
January 2004
Volume: 15
[title-raw] Oxygen

Though oxygen is crucial to a bird’s survival, a young chick actually requires very little to thrive. For instance, the oxygen requirements for a day-old bird is approximately 0.00016 ft3/min. Since air is only 20% oxygen a chick needs to breath in 0.00083 ft3/min of fresh air to get its 0.00016 ft3/min of oxygen. This of course is a very small number and may be difficult to relate to. But, when we look at a typical house it becomes easier to understand how very little fresh air this really...

Categories: Minimum ventilation
No. 11
December 2003
[title-raw] 1/15 hp Circulation Fans

Circulation fans have proven to be beneficial to broiler producers in a variety of ways. Studies have shown that by gently moving hot dry air off the ceiling down toward the floor, floor temperatures can be increased, litter moisture decreased and fuel usage reduced between 10% and 30%.

Categories:
Circulation fans
Energy conservation
No. 10
November 2003
[title-raw] Measing Light Intensity in Poultry Houses

Light intensity during a grow-out can have a significant effect on broiler performance. It is generally recommended that a house be kept fairly bright during the first three to five days of brooding so that the young chicks are stimulated to find feed and water quickly. As the birds get older light intensities are typically lowered to reduce bird activity, thus improving feed conversions. The question many producers have is how bright is bright and how dark is dark?

Categories: Lighting
No. 9
October 2003
[title-raw] Light Hoods for Sidewall Inlets

One of the keys to implementing a successful lighting program is being able to keep the house dark during the day so that bird activity is kept to a minimum. How dark is dark? Though there is a fair amount of debate on the subject, most broiler producers find that a light intensity of somewhere between 0.2 and 0.01 ft-candles reduces bird activity to an acceptable level. To put this in perspective the light intensity at floor level in a typical house with 40 watt light bulbs operating at...

Categories:
Air inlets
Lighting
No. 8
September 2003
[title-raw] Using Fogging Nozzels in Houses With Six-Inch Pads

When properly installed and maintained, a six-inch evaporative cooling pad system can do an excellent job of cooling incoming air during hot weather. As hot outside air is drawn through the pads, the heat (energy) in the incoming air is used to evaporate water from the pads, thereby reducing the temperature of the incoming air. Six-inch pad systems produce more cooling than traditional two-inch fogging pad systems simply because they are more efficient at evaporating water into the air.

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Hot weather management
No. 7
August 2003
[title-raw] Are You Cooling Your Birds at Night

Though tunnel ventilation is the most effective method of keeping birds cool during hot weather, there will be those afternoons, that even with all your tunnel fans and evaporative cooling pads operating at peak efficiency, your birds will show signs of heat stress. This does not necessarily mean that bird performance will suffer. The fact of the matter is that how well birds cope with heat stress situations in tunnel-ventilated houses depends heavily not on the actions you take during the...

Categories: Hot weather management
No. 6
July 2003
[title-raw] Minimizing Wet Litter Problems in Houses with Evap Cooling Pads

The primary cause of wet litter in the vicinity of the tunnel curtain is simply evaporative cooling pads being set to operate at too low of a temperature. The fact of the matter is that evaporative cooling pads should not be used when outside air temperature is below 80oF. This is because for the vast majority of poultry growing areas in the U.S. whenever outside air temperature is below 80oF the relative humidity is above 80% (Figure 1). When 80% Rh air is drawn through an evaporative...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Hot weather management
Litter quality
No. 5
June 2003
[title-raw] Fan Performance Laws

There are very specific “laws” that dictate the relationship between fan speed, air moving capacity, and energy usage for any fan. For instance, fan speed and air moving capacity are proportional. That is, if fan speed is increased 10%, the air moving capacity of the fan will increase roughly 10%. Conversely, if fan speed is decreased 10% , the output of the fan will decrease roughly 10%. A second fan law states that fan power is proportional to the cube of fan speed. As a result, small...

Categories: Exhaust fans
No. 4
May 2003
[title-raw] Proper Circulation Pump Sizing

Evaporative cooling pad circulation pumps are much like fans, except they move water instead of air. Like fans, every model of pump has it own characteristics. We know from working with fans that there is more to selecting a fan than making sure it has the right size motor. Sure, a fan with a larger motor will tend to move more air than one with a smaller motor, but this is not always the case. Even fans with the same size motor do not always move the same amount of air. A 48" fan with a 1 h...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Water
No. 3
April 2003
[title-raw] Operating a Modern Broiler House During Cold Weather

Setting up a modern broiler house can seem like an overwhelming task at first. How many inlets should I use? What is the correct static pressure? Which fans should I use for minimum ventilation? These are just a few of the questions to be answered. Then of course there are questions related to the environmental controller: What is the best way to set timer fans/cooling fans to minimize fuel usage but at the same time maintain the best brooding conditions? Which sensors should be used to...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Minimum ventilation
Negative pressure ventilation
No. 2
February 2003
[title-raw] Tunnel Curtain Pockets

Excessive air leakage from the bottom of tunnel curtains can be an expensive problem for poultry producers to deal with both in terms of fuel usage and bird performance. In many tunnel-ventilated houses the amount of cold air entering around loose fitting tunnel curtains is nearly equal to that entering through side wall inlets when minimum ventilating during cold weather. This surplus of cold air can cause the brooders/furnaces in the vicinity of the tunnel curtain to operate as much as...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Energy conservation
Tightness
No. 1
January 2003
Volume: 14
[title-raw] Insulated Tunnel Doors...A First Look

One of the challenges facing many growers during cold weather is keeping the tunnel curtain ends of their broiler houses warm and dry. There are a number of reasons for this problem, other than the obvious loose end wall door. First, in more and more houses the tunnel curtain is significantly larger than the remainder of the side wall curtains in the house. For instance, most tunnel curtains are approximately five feet in height whereas many side wall curtains are less than three feet in...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Tunnel ventilation
No. 10
December 2002
[title-raw] Answers to Basic Questions About Negative Pressure Ventilation

Quite simply, when you turn on an exhaust fan in a poultry house it pulls air out of the house and air from outside the house moves into the house to replace the air the exhaust fan removed. In a house where the side wall curtains are fully opened, the exhausting of this air basically goes unnoticed due to the large amount of air that even the slightest of breezes is constantly moving in and out of the house. For instance, a 36" fan pulls 10,000 cubic feet of air out of the house every...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Negative pressure ventilation
No. 9
November 2002
[title-raw] Measuring Ammonia Levels in Poultry Houses

It is a well established fact that in order to maximize broiler performance it is crucial that ammonia levels are kept to a minimum during the growout. Numerous studies have shown that ammonia concentrations over 30 ppm reduce weight gains, increase feed conversions, decrease bird uniformity and yield as well as increase susceptibility to disease. The problem is that many broiler producers have difficulty in smelling the difference between 20 and 40 ppm so they might have harmful levels of...

Categories:
Ammonia
Environmental monitoring
No. 8
October 2002
[title-raw] Using Smoke Emitters in Poultry Houses

One of the challenges in ventilating a poultry house is that we can’t see what we are trying to control, namely air flow into and around the house. When the fans come on it is difficult to determine if the cold air entering through the side wall inlets is making it all the way to the center of the house or falling to the floor just a couple of feet from the side wall. For that matter, we can’t tell if most of the air the exhaust fans are bringing in is coming in through the air inlets or...

Categories: Environmental monitoring
No. 7
September 2002
[title-raw] Monitoring Broiler Distribution Through Water Consumption

One of the keys in obtaining maximum bird performance in a tunnel-ventilated house is making sure the birds are uniformly distributed throughout the house. Most producers are very good at installing migration fences to insure that the birds will not migrate toward the inlet end of the house during the growout. But, it is important to realize that just because migration fences are installed doesn’t necessarily mean that bird uniformity problems are eliminated. In order to get the most out of...

Categories: Water
No. 6
July 2002
[title-raw] Getting More Out of Your Pad System's Circulation Pump

It is fairly common knowledge that air speed, and therefore cooling, in a tunnel house is affected by the amount of static pressure the tunnel fans are required to work against. As static pressure increases, the amount of air moved by tunnel fans decreases, reducing wind speed and the associated wind chill effect. What many producers might not be aware of is that just as high static air pressure reduces the amount wind-chill effect, evaporative cooling pad circulation pumps working under...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 5
June 2002
[title-raw] Does Your Evaporative Cooling System Circulate Enough Water?

important that the water distribution system is capable of circulating a minimum of 0.75 gallons/min for every foot of pad system length (GPM/ft). This means, for instance, that a 60' pad section should have a water distribution system capable of circulating a minimum 45 gallons of water over and through the pads each minute. Before you get too concerned, realize that only a small fraction of this water will actually evaporate. In fact, the recommended circulation rate is about ten times the...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Water
No. 4
April 2002
[title-raw] The Importance of Ventilating During Preheating

Do you wait until your chicks arrive before turning on your timer fans? On the surface this seems like a good idea. After all, what purpose do timer fans serve when there are no chicks in the house? But, a recent air quality survey of houses prior to chick placement has indicated that ventilating during preheating is a necessity from a safety standpoint.

Categories:
Cold weather management
Minimum ventilation
No. 3
March 2002
[title-raw] Broiler House Lighting Program

It wasn’t that long ago that a broiler “lighting program” was pretty straightforward; 24 hours of light from day one until the birds were picked up. Some producers provided an hour of darkness at night so the birds would get accustomed to darkness. That way in the event there was a power outage at night the birds would not panic. Others might have even dimmed their lights slightly as the birds grow older to reduce activity to improve feed conversions. But for the most part, the objective of...

Categories:
Bird health
Lighting
No. 2
February 2002
[title-raw] Tunnel-ventilated Pullet House Design Spreadsheet

A tunnel-ventilated pullet house with light traps is one of the most difficult types of poultry houses to design a ventilation system for. There are dozens of different types of light traps to choose from, each with differing abilities to reduce the amount of light entering the house. How much each of these light traps restrict air flow also varies widely and does not necessarily correspond with their “darkness”. As a result, some light traps are very dark as well as restrictive. Others are...

Categories: Tunnel ventilation
No. 1
January 2002
Volume: 13
[title-raw] Using Steel Rod Instead of Cable for Air Inlets

One of the keys to maintaining uniform conditions throughout a poultry house as well as keeping fuel usage to a minimum, is making sure that when we bring fresh air into a house during cooler times of the year that we distribute it evenly throughout the house. It’s fairly simple; if we bring twice the cold air into one end of a house than the other, the air quality will be twice as fresh on the end receiving more air as well as significantly cooler. Of course, on the opposite end of the...

Categories: Air inlets
No. 13
December 2001
[title-raw] Environomental Controller Sensor Placement

A poultry house environmental controller’s temperature sensors are in a sense its eyes. In order for the controller to properly control the environment within a poultry house it must be able to “see” what is happening throughout the house. For instance, if a house has only one temperature sensor a controller can only see what is happening in one very small area of the house. This means that conditions in another area of the house may be very different and the controller may not be aware of...

Categories: Environmental controllers
No. 12
November 2001
[title-raw] Determining Fuel Usage from Brooder/Furnace Runtime

Many new controllers have the ability to keep up with the amount of time each of the heating outputs or zones has operated in the past 24 hour period. The question many producers have is, “How do I convert brooder/furnace operating hours into gallons of propane used?”. The following formulas should prove helpful in answering this question:

Categories:
Energy conservation
Heating systems
No. 11
October 2001
[title-raw] Black Evaporative Cooling Pads and Fans

With more and more producers building or retrofitting to black curtain houses there is a significant amount of interest in getting the areas near the evaporative cooling pads and tunnel fans darker. The light entering a house through evaporative cooling pads and exhaust fans can result in a these areas of the house being 10 to 100 times brighter than the remainder of the house. The higher light intensities near the pads and fans lead to a significant increase bird activity in these areas of...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Exhaust fans
Lighting
No. 10
September 2001
[title-raw] The Importance of Uniform Bird Distribution During Cold Weather

In houses with clear curtains, getting the birds to spread-out evenly after turning out from half house for the most part is not very difficult. Just a couple of sunny days, with the resulting high light intensity in the house, and the chicks are running around and have soon evenly distributed themselves throughout the house. In a totally enclosed house or one with black curtains, the situation is much different. Even with the lights at full intensity, light levels are often 100 times lower...

Categories:
Hot weather management
Tunnel ventilation
No. 9
August 2001
[title-raw] Pad System Installation and Management

In order to insure maximum bird cooling during hot weather, it is crucial that evaporative cooling pads are properly sized. Pad area should based on the total amount of air moved by the tunnel fans, not the size of the house (Table 1). The greater the fan capacity of a house, the more pad required. If not enough pad is installed in a house, the amount of air the fans move will be decreased. As the amount of air the fans move decreases, wind chill decreases and the temperature difference...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 8
July 2001
[title-raw] Summertime checklist

Replace worn fan belts. Fan belts do not stretch. A fan belt rides in the motor and prop pulleys on its sides. Over time, the sides of the belt wear and as a result it becomes thinner. The thinner a belt becomes the lower it will ride in the motor and prop pulleys and the slower the fan blades will rotate. The slower the fans spins the lower amount of air the fan will move. It is not uncommon for a worn belt to result in a loss of fan capacity of 25%. Since the relationship between air speed...

Categories: Maintenance
No. 7
June 2001
[title-raw] Six Inch Pad Systems Will Use More Water Than Fogging Pads

First there was tunnel ventilation with interior fogging nozzles where producers could reduce the air temperature by about ten degrees during hot weather. Fogging nozzles when combined with air speeds of 400 ft/min or more kept the birds fairly comfortable. Then in a quest to minimize house wetting, as well as to increase cooling, producers next turned to fogging pad systems for their tunnel-ventilated houses. Though fogging pad systems virtually eliminated house moisture problems and...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 6
May 2001
[title-raw] Water Usage and Broiler Peformance

One of the biggest frustrations facing broiler producers is not knowing how the flock is doing until after the birds have sold, by which time it is too late to do anything about it. Of course keeping up with daily mortality can provide a general idea of how well a flock is doing but, just because the mortality is “normal” doesn’t necessarily ensure a flock will end up at the top of the settlement sheet, let alone settle above average. Another rough measure is for a producer to “watch” their...

Categories:
Bird health
Water
No. 5
April 2001
[title-raw] Exhaust Fan Test Information Web Site

Buying a new truck for the farm is a major investment and as a result most folks spend a fair amount of time comparing the different options available to them. There are a multitude of different manufacturers, sizes, body types, etc, to consider, but one of the most important aspects of a new truck to consider of course is its engine. You want an engine that will hold up under a heavy load as well as one that is as fuel efficient as possible. This is of course because new truck owners know...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
No. 4
March 2001
[title-raw] Propane Vs. Natural Gas

With rising prices for liquified petroleum gas, commonly referred to as propane, many growers are wondering whether it would be cheaper to heat their houses with natural gas. Though the two fuels are very similar and can do an equally good job of keeping houses warm during cold weather, there are significant differences between the two that need to be considered before a switch to natural gas can be made.

Categories:
Energy conservation
Heating systems
No. 3
February 2001
[title-raw] Keeping Birds Warm With Feed and Fuel

There are basically two methods of heating a poultry house during cold weather. The first is to burn propane; the second is to use bird heat. Producers need to use both methods if they want a profitable operation. But, many times a grower will run into problems because they rely too much on one method of heating to the exclusion of the other. For instance, relying too much on propane for heating a house can obviously lead to high fuel costs, but relying too much on bird heat can lead to bird...

Categories: Cold weather management
No. 2
February 2001
[title-raw] Circulation Fans in Houses With Radiant Brooders

Last winter a study was conducted to determine the possible benefits of installing small mixing fans in houses which used forced air furnaces for brooding. By moving the hot air produced by the furnaces off the ceiling, the 18" circulation fans were found not only to reduce fuel usage on the test farm by approximately 30%, but also raised floor air temperatures by as much as five degrees. Reports from other farms with forced air furnaces which have installed circulation fans this winter have...

Categories: Circulation fans
No. 1
January 2001
Volume: 12
[title-raw] Sealing the Bottom of Side Wall Curtains

During the winter months many poultry producers have a significant problem with cold air leaking into their houses from along the bottom of their side wall curtains. This is especially true for producers with double hemmed side wall curtains (conduit at both the top and bottom of the curtain). A number of producers have found that this leakage can be eliminated, at relatively little expense, by simply sealing the bottom of their curtains with 1" X 2" wooden strips.

Categories:
Energy conservation
Tightness
No. 12
December 2000
[title-raw] The Importance of Proper Inlet Adjustment

Making sure that your side wall inlets are properly adjusted during cold weather is very important, both in terms of maximizing broiler performance as well as minimizing energy usage. This is because it is the side wall inlets that primarily determine air temperature as well air quality uniformity throughout a house, not exhaust fan placement. Or in other words, it is how close a bird is to a fresh air source that determines the quality of the environment it is living in, not how close it is...

Categories: Air inlets
No. 11
November 2000
[title-raw] Programing Environmental Controllers to Minimize Fuel Wastage

In the past a broiler house “environmental control system” typically consisted of a few forced air furnaces for supplemental heat during brooding, four side wall 36" fans for minimum ventilation, a curtain machine to help control house temperature during mild weather, a row of 36" fans down the center of the house and a few dozen fogging nozzles to provide some limited heat stress relief during hot weather. The control of these devices was fairly unsophisticated and as a result growers...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Environmental controllers
No. 10
September 2000
[title-raw] The 80 - 80 Rule...and other facts about evaporative cooling?

During hot weather, did you know that whenever the air temperature is above 80oF the relative humidity is virtually always below 80%? And that when the air temperature is below 80oF,(i.e, early morning, evening, and night) that the relative humidity is always above 80%. It may seem hard to believe, but it is a fact. For example, from June through August of 1999 in Gainesville, Georgia, when the air temperature was above 80oF, 99.5 percent of the time the relative humidity was below 80%....99...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
Hot weather management
No. 9
August 2000
[title-raw] Maximizing Bird Cooling in Tunnel-Ventilated Houses

Most producers have learned over the years that the key to keeping heating costs and drafts to a minimum during cold weather is having a tight house. Time spent on tightening side wall curtains and patching cracks in the side wall, and holes in the ceilings can make it much easier to maintain proper house temperatures on cold winter nights without spending a small fortune on propane. Tightening a house also insures that more of the fresh air brought into the house by timer fans will enter...

Categories: Hot weather management
No. 8
July 2000
[title-raw] Does the Water Flowing Over an Evaporative Cooling Pad Restrict Airflow?

It is common knowledge that the older a bird gets the more problems hot weather can cause. There are a number of reasons for this. First, older birds produce significantly more heat than younger birds. For instance, 24,000 one-pound broilers will produce the same amount of heat as that produced by four conventional brooders operating constantly. But, 24,000 seven pound broilers produce the same amount of heat as 30 conventional brooders. More heat, more problems. Next, older birds are better...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 7
June 2000
[title-raw] Is an Air Speed of 600 ft/min in a Tunnel House Harmful?

Air movement is very effective at cooling birds during hot weather. As air moves over a bird’s body, heat is removed from the bird’s, making it feel cooler, thereby increasing feed consumption as well as bird weight. The cooling effect produced through air movement is often referred to as the wind chill effect. The challenge for producers is trying to determine how much air movement equals how much cooling so they can determine whether instance, at 80oF is 400 ft/min air speed six degrees...

Categories: Air speed
No. 6
May 2000
The Importance of Replacing Worn Fan BeltsCategories: Maintenance
No. 5
April 2000
[title-raw] Reducing Temperature Stratification in Houses with Forced Air Furnaces

Ten years ago forced air furnaces were a very popular method of providing heat during brooding. Over the years there has been a trend away from forced air furnaces towards the use of conventional/radiant brooders. This trend has been so strong that today very few poultry companies would even consider using forced air furnaces on baby chicks.

Categories: Circulation fans
No. 4
March 2000
[title-raw] Heating System Thermostat/Sensor Location

Your chicks are arriving in a couple of hours and you are making your final walk-through to make sure that everything is ready. You notice a light bulb is burned out so you grab a replacement bulb and a ladder. As you climb the ladder you notice the air near the ceiling is surprisingly hot (+100oF). You quickly replace the bulb so you can get back on the floor and the relative comfort of the 85 - 90oF air. But consider this, when you get off the ladder you are sensing the air temperature at...

Categories:
Environmental controllers
Heating systems
No. 3
March 2000
[title-raw] The Importance of Having Proper Gas Pressure

When you have young chicks and the outside temperature drops down to the 20's or 30's, do you have difficulty maintaining the proper house air temperature even though your brooders are operating constantly? It could be that your house is loose, ceiling insulation needs to be increased, or you are having to ventilate a lot because there is too much ammonia. However, another possibility is that you have insufficient gas pressure.

Categories: Heating systems
No. 2
February 2000
[title-raw] Obtaining Uniform Air Inlet Openings

In a negative pressure ventilation system, exhaust fans draw fresh air into the house as well as exhaust stale air from the house. Side wall inlets help to distribute fresh air throughout the house as well as to direct the incoming cold air toward the ceiling and away from the birds. As the cold incoming fresh air moves along the ceiling it mixes with the warm air produced by birds/brooders which “dries it out” before the air moves toward the floor and over the birds.

Categories: Air inlets
No. 1
January 2000
Volume: 11
[title-raw] Tools for Poultry Producers

In modern power-ventilated poultry houses, producers need more than just a large dial thermometer to determine whether or not they are maintaining the ideal growing conditions. To maximize bird performance, while at the same time keeping energy costs to a minimum, producers need to know wind speed, relative humidity, static pressure as well as be able to see how air is flowing in their houses. But, to do this producers must have the right equipment. Listed below are examples of a few tools...

Categories: Environmental monitoring
No. 11
December 1999
[title-raw] House Tightness, Environmental Control and Energy Usage

The more control producers have over air temperature, air quality and energy usage, the more control they will have over their paycheck at the end of the growout. In order to control air temperature, air quality, and energy usage, it is crucial to control how much fresh air enters the house as well as how it enters the house. This means a house must be tight, because in a loose house it is very difficult to control anything. This is true whether we are talking about the hottest day of the...

Categories: Tightness
No. 10
November 1999
[title-raw] Environmental Management and Disease Prevention

The old saying “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” is very appropriate when it comes to respiratory disease in poultry houses. It is generally accepted that if a grower maintains the proper house temperature and air quality the likelihood of problems with respiratory disease will be lowered. Even if a grower ends up with a respiratory disease challenge, the severity can be lessened through proper environmental management.

Categories:
Bird health
Cold weather management
No. 9
October 1999
[title-raw] The Importance of House Tightness During Hot Weather

Most producers have learned over the years that the key to keeping heating costs and drafts to a minimum during cold weather is having a tight house. Time spent on tightening side wall curtains and patching cracks in the side wall, and holes in the ceilings can make it much easier to maintain proper house temperatures on cold winter nights without spending a small fortune on propane. Tightening a house also insures that more of the fresh air brought into the house by timer fans will enter...

Categories: Tightness
No. 8
August 1999
[title-raw] Importance of Air Movement Vs. Bird Age

It is common knowledge that the older a bird gets the more problems hot weather can cause. There are a number of reasons for this. First, older birds produce significantly more heat than younger birds. For instance, 24,000 onepound broilers will produce the same amount of heat as that produced by four conventional brooders operating constantly. But, 24,000 seven pound broilers produce the same amount of heat as 30 conventional brooders. More heat, more problems. Next, older birds are better...

Categories:
Air speed
Hot weather management
No. 7
July 1999
[title-raw] Recent Developements in Wind-Chill Charts

Air movement is very effective at cooling birds during hot weather. As air moves over a bird’s body, heat is removed from the bird’s, making it feel cooler, thereby increasing feed consumption as well as bird weight. The cooling effect produced through air movement is often referred to as the wind chill effect. The challenge for producers is trying to determine how much air movement equals how much cooling so they can determine whether they are keeping the proper house air temperature. For...

Categories: Air speed
No. 6
June 1999
[title-raw] Air Temperature/Speed Meter

Poultry producers are generally well acquainted with the importance of maintaining the proper house air temperature throughout the life of the flock. If young chicks are kept too cold, they will not get off to a good start resulting in increased early mortality as well as decreased weights at the end of the grow out. Keeping older birds too cold will result in poor feed conversions. By far the most costly situation when it comes to controlling house temperature is allowing older birds to...

Categories: Environmental monitoring
No. 5
May 1999
[title-raw] Tunnel Ventilation Fan Performance Ratings

A grower's ability to keep his brids cool and operating costs to a minimum during warm weather in a modern tunnel-ventilated broiler house is determined to a large extent by the type of tunnel ventilation fans installed.  As a result, installing the "right" fan is crucial to a grower's bottom line.  The problem facing a grower is figuring out which fan is the "right" fan.  With more than ten manufacturers and well over 200 fan models to choose from, selecting a fan for a tunnel-ventilated...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
No. 4
April 1999
[title-raw] Exhaust Fan Performance Factors

There are three performance factors to consider when purchasing an exhaust fan for a tunnel-ventilated poultry house: air moving capacity, energy efficiency, and air flow ratio. Knowing the air moving capacity of an exhaust fan, at a static pressure of 0.05", helps a grower to determine how many fans his house will require. For instance, let's say a grower is going to build a 40' X 500' dropped ceiling (7 1/2' side wall) broiler house.  To obtain the desired air exchange rate and air speed...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
No. 3
March 1999
[title-raw] Basic Light Controlled Breeder Pullet House Ventilation System Specifications

The following are general specifications recommended for a 40' X 400' breeder pullet house with a dropped ceiling and 7 1/2' side walls:

  • A minimum of 96,000 cfm of tunnel fan capacity. Open ceiling houses may require additional exhaust fan capacity and/or air deflectors to obtain the desired air speed.
  • Desired air speed 300 ft/min or better
  • Fogging system capable of reducing incoming air temperature by a minimum of 8°F
  • Enough side wall...
Categories: Breeder
No. 2
February 1999
[title-raw] Electronic Thermostats

Maintaining the proper house temperature is essential in order to keep your birds healthy as well as to maximize weight gain and minimize feed conversion. At no time is this more important than during the first few weeks of a bird's life. Some experts have said that for every degree chicks are brooded below the ideal temperature, body weight is decreased by 0.01 pounds and feed conversion is increased by one point. Large variations in house temperature can also lead to production problems....

Categories: Environmental controllers
No. 1
January 1999
Volume: 10
[title-raw] Basic Power-Ventilated Broiler House Operation

Over the years the poultry industry has become increasingly concerned with control over environmental conditions within poultry houses. For instance, forty years ago the typical poultry producer was not overly concerned about precisely controlling the environment within his poultry houses. For the most part, environmental control meant trying to keep chicks from freezing to death during the dead of winter and trying to prevent market age birds from dying of heat exhaustion during the heat of...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Environmental controllers
Negative pressure ventilation
No. 12
November 1998
[title-raw] Dimmable Fluorescent Lights

There is a new compact fluorescent lighting system on the market for broiler houses which has generated a significant amount of interest among both poultry companies and producers. The reason for the interest is that the new compact fluorescent light bulbs are said to be dimmable, produce more light, use less electricity, and emit a green light which is claimed to improve bird performance.

Categories:
Energy conservation
Lighting
No. 11
October 1998
[title-raw] Circuit Breaker Overheating

One of the biggest fears for the owner of a tunnel-ventilated house is having big birds and losing electrical power on a hot summer day. They know if the power goes out and the side wall curtains on their houses do not fall, all their birds will probably be dead in less than 30 minutes. They also realize that even if their side wall curtains fall like they are supposed to, a bird which is acclimated to an “effective” air temperature in the mid seventies (85oF actual house temperature - 10oF...

Categories:
Electrical
Maintenance
No. 10
September 1998
[title-raw] Are Your Water Supply Pumps Large Enough?

Water usage on broiler farms has increased significantly over the last ten years. Though some of the increased water usage is due to faster growing and larger birds, it is changes in evaporative cooling systems that has had the largest effect. Ten years ago when a naturally-ventilated house with circulation fans was the norm the typical fogging system consisted of 50, one gal/hr nozzles, operating at 120 psi. This type of house required a well capacity of about one gallon per minute. Then...

Categories: Water
No. 9
August 1998
[title-raw] Potential Problems with Evaporative Cooling Pad Structures

Placing fogging pads or recirculatory pads in a false wall a couple of feet from the side of the house is gaining popularity among poultry producers. The space between the pads and the side wall of the house allows the producer easy access to both sides of the pad, making pad and curtain maintenance easier as well as minimizing the possibility of water from the pad entering the house and wetting the litter. Though for the most part these pad structures have proven very beneficial, there is a...

Categories:
Evaporative cooling
House construction
No. 8
August 1998
[title-raw] The Importance of Air Speed in Tunnel Houses

It is important to keep in mind that when it comes to keeping birds cool in tunnel-ventilated houses during hot weather air speed is everything. In fact, it is primarily the amount and uniformity of air speed in a tunnel house that sets it apart from other styles of housing, not so much the use evaporative cooling pads. With the right amount of air speed a producer can lower the effective temperature 10 degrees or more no matter how humid it is, remove trapped hot air from between the birds...

Categories:
Air speed
Tunnel ventilation
No. 7
July 1998
[title-raw] Poultry Housing Tips Topics

The poultry industry has changed a lot over the last ten years. Nowhere is this change more evident than in the houses now used to grow birds. Concepts such as tunnel ventilation, radiant brooders, and fogging pads were practically unheard of ten years ago. Now they are practically the norm. We have gone from a situation where side wall curtains were the primary method of ventilating a poultry house to today where in many instances the curtains are just there in case of a power outage or to...

No. 6
June 1998
[title-raw] Extreme Weather Tips

Heat is produced as a birds digests feed just as your car’s engine produces heat when it “consumes” gasoline. In both cases, excess heat has to be removed to prevent overheating. A car’s engine is cooled through the use of a radiator and to a lesser extent by air blowing over the engine as you travel down the road. A bird rids itself of excess heat primarily in two ways, evaporating water off of its respiratory system as it breathes and by giving off heat to the air moving over and around...

Categories: Hot weather management
No. 5
May 1998
[title-raw] Problems Associated with Insufficient Light Trap Area

Most light controlled pullet houses in the United States do not have enough inlet and fan light trap area. As a result, it is not uncommon to find pullet house exhaust fans operating at less than 60% of their rated capacity. The reason that little has been done to address this problem is that pullets are on restricted feed and are placed at very low densities mortality problems are extremely rare, and the loss in ventilation fan efficiency is not easily recognized as a real problem....

Categories: Breeder
No. 4
April 1998
[title-raw] Light Traps for Breeder Pullet Houses

One of the most challenging types of poultry houses to ventilate is a black-out breeder pullet house. In order to obtain optimal breeder performance both light intensity and the number of light hours each day must be precisely controlled. The objective is to limit the birds to eight to ten hours of light each day until they are approximately 20 weeks old. At 20 weeks of age the number of “daylight” hours is increased to about 15 hours. This lighting scheme is used to insure that the breeders...

No. 3
March 1998
[title-raw] Tunnel-Ventilated House Summertime Preparation

Even though we are barely out of the cold weather season, now is the time to plan your strategy on how to keep hot weather from defeating you this summer. Don’t wait until the heat is upon us to act; by then it will be too late. Take the initiative now and be ready ahead of time this year. Here are some thoughts on preparing tunnel-ventilated broiler houses for warm weather.

Categories: Maintenance
No. 2
February 1998
[title-raw] Litter Treatments & House Moisture

With the price of shavings increasing and the availability decreasing, many growers are forced to go longer between cleanouts than they ideally would prefer. One of the problems with starting off chicks on built up litter is that the producer will have to deal with high ammonia levels from day one. The producer traditionally has had two ways of coping with this problem: he can increase his timer fan settings by 30% or more over what is needed in houses with fresh litter, which will of course...

Categories:
Ammonia
Litter quality
Minimum ventilation
No. 1
January 1998
Volume: 9
[title-raw] Lighting System Operting Cost

With yearly electricity bills often exceeding fuel bills, managing electricity usage is a major area of concern for most broiler growers. Often, when growers are trying to figure out how they can reduce their power bills, they concentrate their efforts on reducing fan usage. Though fans are typically responsible for the largest portion of a growers power bill, it is important to note that electricity bills can be significantly reduced on many farms by making relatively inexpensive changes to...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Lighting
No. 14
December 1997
[title-raw] Light Dimmers and Electricity Usage

Do dimmers reduce electricity usage as you reduce light levels in your house? In short, yes. Modern electronic dimmers reduce light output by electronically reducing the voltage going to the light bulbs. As you turn down the dimmer, the voltage going to the bulbs is reduced, which in turn reduces both light intensity and power usage. This was not always the case. Before the invention of the electronic dimmer, many many years ago, rheostat dimmers were used by a few people. With rheostat...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Lighting
No. 13
November 1997
[title-raw] Controlling Litter Moisture

As a general rule, for every pound of feed a bird eats it will drink almost two pounds of water. For instance 24,000 four-day-old birds will eat approximately a thousand pounds of feed a day but will drink close to one ton of water a day. As birds get older, feed consumption increases dramatically and so does the amount of water they drink. For instance, 24,000 seven-week-old birds will eat over three and a half tons of feed a day and drink over eight tons of water a day. By the end of a...

Categories: Litter quality
No. 12
October 1997
[title-raw] Average House Temperature

The temperature of air in a tunnel-ventilated house increases as it travels from the inlet to the fans. The increase in air temperature is caused by the addition of heat coming from the building surfaces (i.e., curtain and ceiling) as well as from the birds. How much of a temperature difference a producer will see between the two ends of a tunnel-ventilated house depends on how much heat is added to the air as well as how many fans are operating. For instance, if a house has large birds...

Categories: Environmental controllers
No. 11
September 1997
[title-raw] Tunnel/Sidewall Inlet Broiler House Operation

More and more poultry producers are building broiler houses that can be power-ventilated year round. The typical house has side wall inlets for use during cold or moderate weather and tunnel ventilation for warmer weather. The reason for this trend is to gain more control over the environment (i.e, temperature, air quality, light) and therefore, bird performance and health.

Categories:
Cold weather management
Environmental controllers
Hot weather management
No. 10
August 1997
[title-raw] Fogging Nozzles Vs. Soaking Hoses

Recently there has been a substantial amount of interest in using soaker hoses to wet two-inch paper pad systems instead of fogging nozzles. Growers are interested in using soaker hoses for a number of reasons, the most important of which is doing away with two hundred or more clog-prone fogging nozzles. Secondly, a hundred feet or so of soaker hose is significantly cheaper than 200 nozzles, over 300 feet of schedule 80 PVC pipe, and a 3/4 hp booster pump. Finally, growers hope that a soaker...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 9
July 1997
[title-raw] Fogging Nozzles and Temperature Reduction in Tunnel-Ventilated Houses

The chart above shows the daily mortality in two 36' X 350' tunnel-ventilated broiler houses on a farm near Athens, Georgia during the first week of July. In House #2, over 500 birds were lost from July 3rd to the 4th. During this same time period only 80 birds were lost in House #1. Both houses had dropped ceilings, six 48" slant wall fans, migration fences, and a fogging system. Birds in both houses were placed at a density of 0.84 square feet per bird and were the same age, approximately...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 7
June 1997
[title-raw] Temperature and Relative Humidity...Part 2

Last month’s Poultry Housing Tips discussed the relationship between outside temperature and relative humidity. Namely, as outside temperature increases, relative humidity decreases. Since relative humidity decreases as air temperature increases, the amount of cooling a pad or fogging system will produce increases throughout the day as temperatures climb. Weather data for two locations in Georgia (Athens in North Georgia, and Alma in Southeast Georgia) during the summer of 1993 and 1994 were...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 6
May 1997
[title-raw] Temperature, Relative Humidity and Evaporative Cooling

Probably one of the most commonly asked questions about summertime ventilation is whether evaporative cooling systems should be used on hot and very humid afternoons. For instance, should growers turn off their foggers or pads when it is 95oF outside and 90% relative humidity? This is a tough question to answer, not because there isn’t an answer, but because it is a virtually impossible situation. It is like asking if you should use a tunnel ventilation system in north Georgia on a 95oF day...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 5
April 1997
[title-raw] Benefits of Controlling Relative Humidity

For years many producers have used ammonia levels as the primary basis for determining timer fan settings. For example, a grower may set his interval timer for 30 seconds or maybe even a minute out of ten with day old birds when there is little or no ammonia. As the birds get older and ammonia increases, the timer clock setting and the number of fans operating off the timer are increased to keep the ammonia levels at what the grower perceives as acceptable. Though this method of setting...

Categories:
Ammonia
Litter quality
Minimum ventilation
No. 4
March 1997
[title-raw] Controlling Litter Moisture and Ammonia

Why is it that new or recently cleaned out houses tend to have more litter caking problems than houses with built-up litter? Is it because the floor is not quite as dry in a new or recently cleaned out house? Or, could it be that the litter is deeper in a house with built-up litter, and therefore capable of holding more moisture? Or, maybe it’s a combination of the two? The answer to this mystery could lie in observations made on a new broiler farm last winter.

Categories:
Ammonia
Litter quality
Minimum ventilation
No. 3
February 1997
[title-raw] Reducing Broiler House Heating Costs

Reducing heating cost is always a concern for broiler producers during the winter months. This year the concern is heightened due to predictions that propane could be over a dollar a gallon by the end of the winter. Over the past six years a number of “Poultry Housing Tips” have been written on the subject of reducing heating costs. The following is a summary of just a few of the topics covered in past newsletters that can help broiler producers reduce their heating costs.

Categories: Energy conservation
No. 2
January 1997
[title-raw] High Efficiency 48" Fans Reduce Electricity Cost 20 to 30 Percent

Ten years ago the average broiler producer spent twice as much on fuel as on electricity. Today, many producers are finding that their yearly electricity bills are equal to or even greater than the cost of heating their houses. One of the biggest reasons for the dramatic increase in electricity usage is the need for increased cooling for the bigger birds many people are growing, more specifically tunnel ventilation. Further contributing to the increased electricity usage on many farms is the...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Exhaust fans
No. 1
January 1997
Volume: 8
[title-raw] Reducing Side Wall Curtain Leakage

Do you realize that on a cold windy day you are probably losing more heat through cracks around your side wall curtains than you are through your timer fans? For example, let’s say it is 400F outside, the wind is blowing 10 mph, you have day old chicks, and two 36" fans are set to run one minute out of five. In this situation 192,000 Btu's of heat are exhausted through timer fan ventilation each hour. This heat loss is necessary to insure that you are bringing in enough fresh is to keep the...

Categories: Tightness
No. 12
December 1996
[title-raw] Inlet Machine Installation

A side wall inlet machine can take a lot of the work out of controlling house temperature and air quality while at the same time minimizing fuel usage. An inlet machine insures that the inlets open when the timer fans come on and close when they shut off. As outside temperature increases and more fans come on to cool the house, an inlet machine increases the amount of inlet opening to match the number of fans operating. As a result, the outside temperature can vary from below freezing to...

Categories: Air inlets
No. 11
November 1996
[title-raw] Getting Chicks Off to a Good Start

Birds, like other warm-blooded animals, try to maintain relatively constant body temperatures. Unlike mature birds, young chicks are not very good at maintaining a constant body temperature and as a result, their body temperature is affected by house temperature. In fact, a chick's ability to regulate its own body temperature (referred to as its thermoregulatory system) does not fully develop until about two weeks of age. Therefore, it is highly dependent upon the grower to provide the...

Categories: Cold weather management
No. 10
October 1996
[title-raw] Flying Chicken Houses?

At first glance of the photograph below, you might conclude that the house was simply blown over by a strong wind (Figure 1). But if you look closer you can tell that the house was actually picked up, then blown over. If the house were blown over, the sidewall would be next to the block wall foundation. But, as you can see, the side wall is about six feet from the foundation.

Categories: House construction
No. 9
September 1996
[title-raw] Fogging Pad Update

This spring, tests were conducted in an evaporative-cooled wind tunnel facility to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of wetting paper pads. The objective of these tests was to maximize cooling while minimizing water runoff. The temperature drop or cooling listed in the examples below is approximately the amount of cooling the different systems would produce on a warm summer day. The exact amount of cooling produced would change with weather conditions, pad area, etc. and thus...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 8
August 1996
[title-raw] Reducing Electricity Costs in Tunnel-Ventilated Broiler Houses

producers with tunnel-ventilated houses is power usage. This concern is warranted. The average tunnel-ventilated broiler house has eight, one-horsepower 48" fans and a one-horsepower fogging pump. If a producer were to operate all eight fans 24 hours a day and the fogging pump 12 hours a day for a month, it would cost about $675. Add to this the cost of operating lights, feeder motors, etc. and it is possible for a producer to spend $800 or more a month per house for electricity.

Categories: Energy conservation
No. 7
July 1996
[title-raw] Windchill Effect

Air movement is one of the most effective methods of cooling birds during hot weather. As air moves over a bird's hot body, heat is removed from the bird, making it feel cooler. The greater the amount of air movement, the greater the cooling effect produced. The cooling produced by air movement is real. Birds will not only think the house is cooler when exposed to air movement during hot weather, but they will continue to eat and grow as if the air temperature really is ten degrees lower...

Categories: Air speed
No. 6
June 1996
[title-raw] Managing Fogging-Pad Runoff

Fogging-pad systems are quickly becoming the preferred method of reducing air temperature in tunnel-ventilated poultry houses during hot weather. They can cool incoming air 12 degrees or more while keeping the birds, litter, and equipment relatively dry. Overall, producers have reported minimal problems with fogging-pad systems, as compared to traditional fogging systems.

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 5
May 1996
[title-raw] Evaporative Cooling Options for Tunnel-Ventilated Houses...an Overview

Five to ten years ago selecting an evaporative cooling system for a tunnel-ventilated poultry house was fairly simple. The decision was easy because a producer only had two real choices. He could spend about $1,000 dollars for a low pressure fogging system that produced five to eight degrees of cooling or $6,000 for a traditional evaporative cooling pad system that produced up to twenty degrees cooling. Though most producers wanted the twenty degrees cooling, they usually settled for the...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 3b
March 1996
[title-raw] Problems with Evaporative Cooling Pad Distribution Systems

There seems to be four major complaints when it comes to traditional evaporative cooling pad systems: I can't get my entire pad wet, the holes water distribution pipe clogs frequently, my pads are clogged with dust and algae, and water leaks from the distribution system cover making a mess of my house near the pads. Until recently many people thought these problems are just part of having a evaporative cooling pad system. But, some of the recent changes in water distribution system design...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 3a
March 1996
[title-raw] How Much Evaporative Cooling Pad Do I Need?

One of the advantages of having a tunnel-ventilated poultry house is that you can use evaporative cooling pads to reduce the temperature of the incoming air. Evaporative cooling pads resemble paper air filters and are placed over the large air inlets in a tunnel-ventilated house. They are wetted using fogging nozzles or by dripping water over them. As the air drawn in to the house by the tunnel fans moves through the wetted pad, water evaporates off the pad reducing the temperature of the...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 2
February 1996
[title-raw] How Many Timer Fans Should I Use?

As a general rule, it is better to run fewer exhaust fans on interval timers for minimum ventilation. This is because using a large number of timer fans leads to wide variations in house temperature and air quality, thus leading to poor bird performance and excessive fuel usage. For instance, let's say you had a choice of running either three 36" fans two minutes out of five or six 36" fans one minute out of five. In both instances you would bring in the same amount of air over the five-...

Categories:
Environmental controllers
Minimum ventilation
No. 1
January 1996
Volume: 7
[title-raw] Radiant Brooder Installation and Management

Low air temperatures during the first few days of a bird's life may be more harmful than you may think. A newly hatched chick is more like a cold-blooded reptile than a bird. Their body temperature, and therefore, their level of activity is heavily influenced by the temperature of the air around them. If the air is warm, the chick will be warm and show a high level of activity (i.e., running around, eating and drinking). But if the air is cold, the chick will be cold and tend to huddle and...

Categories: Heating systems
No. 12
December 1995
[title-raw] Adjusting Minimum Ventilation Using Relative Humidity Meters

Most broiler producers understand that ammonia levels above 30 ppm can have an adverse effect upon broiler health and performance. The problem is knowing exactly what 30 ppm smells like. To further complicate matters, a person's ability to determine the presence of ammonia decreases over the years. So even if someone knows what 30 ppm ammonia smells like today, a couple of years down the road 50 ppm ammonia may smell like what 25 ppm smelled like a few years ago.

Categories:
Environmental controllers
Minimum ventilation
No. 11
November 1995
[title-raw] Cold Weather Check List

Cold weather is just around the corner. By spending a few hours now "winterizing" your poultry houses, you can help insure that your birds will stay warm this winter with a minimum amount of fuel usage. The following are a few items you may want to check.

Categories: Maintenance
No. 10
October 1995
[title-raw] Reflective/Ceramic Roof Coatings

One of the most common misconceptions about poultry houses is that during hot weather most of the heat that causes heat stress enters the house through the ceiling. If you have ever been on the roof or in the attic of a poultry house on a summer day you can understand why people make this assumption. Studies have shown that metal roofs can get as hot as 160oF and attic temperature can easily exceed 130oF in the Southeast. So it stands to reason, a hot roof equals a hot house.

Categories: Insulation
No. 9
September 1995
[title-raw] Direct Drive 48" Fans Vs. Belt Driven 48" Fans

In order to maximize bird cooling in a tunnel-ventilated house, 48" exhaust fans need to operate at maximum efficiency. Dirty fan blades and shutters can reduce exhaust fan output by 30% or more. If fan screens become dusty and feather covered, fan output can be reduced as much if not more. If the belts slip, the blades turn slower and the amount of air the fans move is adversely affected as well. For instance, if the fan blades are spinning 10% slower than they should, then the fan will...

Categories: Exhaust fans
No. 8
August 1995
[title-raw] Summertime Floor Air Temperatures

During cold weather, hot air produced by furnaces, brooders and birds rises toward and collects at the ceiling. As a result, the air near the ceiling will often be 5oF to 20oF warmer than the air near the floor. The accumulation of this hot air near the ceiling makes it difficult to keep the birds warm, the litter dry and fuel costs low. It may be hard to believe but during the summer the problem most growers face is not the accumulation of hot air near the ceiling, but rather, the...

Categories:
Air speed
Hot weather management
No. 7
July 1995
[title-raw] Tunnel Inlet Opening and Air Movement

The biggest difference between a tunnel-ventilated and a naturally ventilated house with circulation fans is the amount and uniformity of air movement. If properly designed and operated the air in a tunnel-ventilated house is exchanged about once every minute and birds throughout the house are exposed to a windchill effect of 10 degrees or more. But, if there are not enough fans or fan performance is reduced for one reason or another, the birds in a tunnel-ventilated house may not perform...

Categories:
Air speed
Tunnel ventilation
No. 6
June 1995
[title-raw] Summertime Check List

Summer is just around the corner and with it will come heat stress related production problems. The following is a check list to help you get your houses ready for the hot weather to come:

Categories: Maintenance
No. 5
May 1995
[title-raw] Cable Life and Pulley Size

Do you have a problem with inlet and curtain cables breaking? If so, you may be interested in learning that most cable breaks are due not to insufficient cable strength, but to improperly matching of cables to pulleys.

Categories:
Air inlets
Maintenance
No. 4
April 1995
[title-raw] Timer Fan Electricity Usage

Controlling minimum ventilation fans with five- or ten-minute interval timers has proven over the years to be a very effective way of controlling air quality and temperature as well as minimizing fuel usage during cold weather. An interval timer provides a grower a high level of control at a minimal cost. Think for a minute how you would ventilate a house during cold weather without exhaust fans controlled by a timer. Negative pressure ventilation would not be practical. If you ran one fan...

Categories:
Energy conservation
Environmental controllers
No. 3
March 1995
[title-raw] Ten-Minute vs. Five-Minute Interval Timers

Interval timers are the most popular method of controlling and limiting the amount of fresh air brought into a house by exhaust fans during cold weather. A 36" fan will move approximately 10,000 cubic feet of air each minute it operates. But there are many times a grower may want considerably less air than this to be brought in. For instance, in the average 400- foot house during the first week of production, we only need about 2,000 cubic feet of fresh air each minute. During the fourth...

Categories:
Cold weather management
Environmental controllers
Minimum ventilation
No. 2
February 1995
[title-raw] Small Curtain Opening vs. Adjustable Air Inlets

Maintaining good air quality without getting a large fuel bill at the end of the month is a challenge all broiler and pullet growers face during the winter months. It seems growers have two options; they can increase the timer settings on their minimum ventilation fans and have good air quality with a high fuel cost, or reduce timer fan settings and have poor air quality with a low fuel cost. There just doesn't seem to be a way to have both a good environment and low fuel bills.

Categories:
Air inlets
Negative pressure ventilation
No. 1
January 1995
Volume: 6
[title-raw] Environmental Controller Failure ... Bird Loss

A few years ago I visited a commercial-egg pullet grower who had just installed an environmental controller in his house. The grower had installed the controller to increase his control over house temperature and air quality, as well as help coordinate all of his heating and cooling equipment. He was tired of setting more than a dozen thermostats of questionable accuracy and watching exhaust fans and heaters operating at the same time. With this new controller all he had to do was to select...

Categories: Environmental controllers
No. 12
December 1994
[title-raw] Environmental Controllers

The broiler industry has come a long way in the past four decades. Today we can grow a bird to 4.7 lbs in 42 days, whereas, 34 years ago it would have taken 100 days just to get to a weight of 3.5 lbs. Part of the reason for this dramatic increase in growth rates is improvements in poultry nutrition. For instance, if we took a flock of birds from the 1950's and fed them a 1990's diet their growth rate would be 20 percent higher than birds fed a 1950's diet. The main reason, however, for the...

Categories: Environmental controllers
No. 11
November 1994
[title-raw] Negative Pressure Ventilation Without Adjustable Air Inlets

Negative pressure ventilation is the most popular ventilation system used by broiler producers in the Southeast. Through the use of exhaust fans and adjustable air inlets, growers have found that they can more easily rid the house of ammonia and excess moisture, maintain more consistent house temperatures, and at the same time keep energy usage to a minimum. These benefits are due to the fact that a negative pressure ventilation system gives the grower more control over air exchange and air...

Categories: Negative pressure ventilation
No. 10
October 1994
[title-raw] Using Cold Water in Evaporative Cooling Systems

Though air movement is a grower's most effective tool in combatting heat stress, his evaporative cooling system (i.e.,fogging, fogging-pad, or pad system) is a close second. Studies have shown that as air temperature climbs above 85oF, the "wind chill" effect produced by air movement decreases. This is not to say that circulation fans and tunnel ventilation are not effective at reducing heat stress when it gets hot, but rather, in order for air movement to have a maximum cooling effect,...

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 9
September 1994
[title-raw] Fogging Pad Installation

Fogging-pad cooling systems are becoming a very popular method of reducing heat stress in tunnel-ventilated houses. Poultry growers have found that fogging-pad systems can reduce house air temperature by 10 to 15 degrees, are easy to manage, relatively inexpensive and most importantly keep their houses drier than traditional fogging systems.

 

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 8
August 1994
[title-raw] Fan and Light Bulb Operating Costs

Electricity cost is of concern to most poultry growers, especially those with tunnel-ventilated houses. Over the past five years many growers have seen their yearly electricity bill slowly increase to the point that it exceeds their fuel bill. Though in most instances the increase in electricity usage has resulted in increased bird performance, it still hurts when that electricity bill shows up every month.

 

Categories:
Energy conservation
Lighting
No. 7
July 1994
[title-raw] Air Deflectors in Tunnel-Ventilated Houses

The key to keeping birds cool during the warm summer months is air movement. If enough air is moved over and around a bird the effective air temperature can be reduced by ten degrees or more. This is because as air moves over the bird, heat is removed from the bird's body, making it cooler. So, even though a thermometer in a house may indicate that the air temperature is 85°, with good air movement the birds will eat, gain weight, and perform as if the temperature were 75°.

 

Categories:
Air speed
Tunnel ventilation
No. 6
June 1994
[title-raw] Guidelines for Operating Tunnel-Ventilated Broiler Houses

One of the first questions a grower with a new tunnel-ventilated house will commonly ask is, "How do I operate it?". This question is usually followed by about a dozen more specific questions. For example:

How many exhaust fans do I run and at what age?
When do I use my fogging system?
When do I go to tunnel ventilation? What age? What temperature?
When should I use natural ventilation?

 

Categories:
Cold weather management
Environmental controllers
No. 5
May 1994
[title-raw] Wind Speed in Tunnel-Ventilated Poultry Houses

Imagine you have a pipe 22' across and 500' long. Connected to the end of the pipe is a large pump capable of moving 1,140,000 gallons of water every minute (152,000 cubic feet of water per minute). How can you determine how fast the water will flow in the pipe? Actually, it is very easy to calculate. All you have to do is divide the pump capacity by the cross-sectional area of the pipe.

 

Categories:
Air speed
Tunnel ventilation
No. 4
April 1994
[title-raw] Bird Migration in Naturally-Ventilated Broiler Houses

There may be an easy and inexpensive way for growers with naturally-ventilated houses to reduce heat stress related mortality as well as increase bird performance during the summertime. It doesn't involve buying more fans, changing fogging systems, or using more electricity. The only thing the grower has to do is install three or four short migration fences, like those placed in tunnel-ventilated houses.

Categories: Hot weather management
No. 3
March 1994
[title-raw] Condensation . . . What causes it and how to get rid of it

One of the keys to understanding poultry house ventilation during cold weather is remembering one simple rule: In order for air to hold moisture, energy or heat is required. The warmer the air, the more moisture it can hold. For example, the air contained in a 400' broiler house can hold up to 66 lbs of water at 40°. But, if the same amount of air were heated to 70°, the amount of moisture the air can hold increases to 184 lbs.

Categories: Minimum ventilation
No. 2
February 1994
[title-raw] 10 Simple Steps for Effective Negative Pressure Ventilation

Using the concept of negative pressure to ventilate a broiler house during cold weather is easier than many people think. The only things a grower needs are a few fans to exhaust stale air, some adjustable inlets for fresh air to enter through and a $25 static pressure meter (see Negative Pressure Ventilation - The Basics October/November, 1991). Once a grower has these items all he needs to do is follow these 10 steps:

Categories: Negative pressure ventilation
No. 1
January 1994
Volume: 5
[title-raw] Negative Pressure Ventilation - How Many Inlets Do I Need?

 

No. 9
December 1993
[title-raw] Negative Pressure Ventilation - How Many Fans Do I Need?

"How many exhaust fans do I need for wintertime ventilation?" is a question that many broiler producers ask when constructing a new house or remodeling an older one. There is a quick and easy answer. As a general rule, a broiler house should have 15,000 ft3/min of fan capacity (one and a half 36" fans) for every 100' of house length. Therefore, a 400' house would require the equivalent of six 36" fans and a 500' house about eight. Soon after having that question answered, most growers have a...

No. 8
October 1993
[title-raw] Maintaining a Consistent House Temperature During Cold Weather
No. 7
August 1993
[title-raw] Selecting Exhaust Fans for Tunnel-Ventilated Broiler Houses

One of the first questions a broiler producer has when considering building a new tunnel-ventilated house or updating an older house is, "How many fans will I have to buy?" Most often the answer is given in terms of house length. A 400' house requires a minimum of seven 48" fans, and a 500' house needs eight. Though this method of fan selection works out fine most of the time, it is not foolproof and in some cases can lead to hot birds and high electricity bills.

No. 6
July 1993
[title-raw] Fogging Pad Cooling Systems... A First Look

Until recently, producers with tunnel-ventilated houses have used either fogging nozzles or evaporative cooling pads to reduce the temperature in their houses during hot weather. Both systems have proven successful in limiting heat stress and each has advantages as well as disadvantages. Evaporative cooling pads are capable of reducing the temperature in the house up to 20oF, but are relatively expensive and can require frequent maintenance. Fogging systems are fairly inexpensive but don't...

No. 5
May 1993
[title-raw] Is your Inlet Machine Too Slow?

For growers with negative pressure houses, inlet machines can make it relatively easy to provide ideal house conditions for their birds. Throughout the entire day, side-wall inlets are continuously adjusted by the machine as exhaust fans turn on and off so that the inlets are open just the right amount to maximize both fan efficiency and air mixing. The grower doesn't have to worry that if outside conditions suddenly change when he isn't there that his inlets are open too much or closed too...

No. 4
April 1993
[title-raw] Exhaust Fans with Shutter Opening Devices - Electricity usage

One of the most common complaints about power ventilation is cleaning fan shutters. It is a constant battle. You clean the shutters one day and a few days later they are covered with dust and hanging partly closed again. Studies conducted by The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service found that in commercial egg laying houses over a quarter of a pound of dust collect on shutters each day. This means that shutters require practically daily cleaning. In broiler houses shutters don...

No. 3
March 1993
[title-raw] Negative Pressure Ventilation - Electricity usage

Exhaust fans, although present in almost every poultry house, are often under-used. One of the most common arguments against using exhaust fans and for using side wall curtains is electricity usage. After all, curtain ventilation is "free" and fan ventilation costs money. Though it is true that producers who curtain ventilate their houses during cool weather will have lower electricity costs, the question is whether they really save a lot of money by doing so?

No. 2
February 1993
[title-raw] Negative Pressure Ventilation - Inlet machines

The number, as well as size, of air inlets recommended for negative pressure houses has steadily increased over the years. Ten years ago, a 400' house may have had only ten or twenty 4" X 4' inlets (13 ft2), if any at all. Today, many new houses have over fifty 7" X 4' inlets (140 ft2). The dramatic increase in inlet area has given producers a higher level of control over house temperature, air quality, and fuel usage. The more control a grower has over these factors, the more control he has...

No. 1
January 1993
Volume: 4
[title-raw] Negative Pressure Air InletsCategories:
Air inlets
Negative pressure ventilation
No. 12
December 1992
[title-raw] Half-House Brooding Ventilation

 
 
 
 

Categories: Cold weather management
No. 11
November 1992
[title-raw] Side Wall Curtains and Air Leakage

 
 
 
 

Categories: Tightness
No. 10
October 1992
[title-raw] Comparing Poultry House Exhaust Fans

 
 
 
 

Categories: Exhaust fans
No. 9
September 1992
[title-raw] Fogging Systems in Curtain-Sided Poultry Houses

 
 
 
 

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 8
August 1992
[title-raw] Temperature Reduction in Tunnel-Ventilated Poultry HousesCategories:
Air speed
Tunnel ventilation
No. 7
July 1992
[title-raw] Designing Fogging Systems for Tunnel-Ventilated Houses

 

 

 

 

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 6
June 1992
[title-raw] Warm Weather "Rules of Thumbs"

 
 
 
 

Categories: Hot weather management
No. 5
May 1992
[title-raw] Heat Stress and Nighttime Ventilation

 
 
 
 

Categories: Hot weather management
No. 4
April 1992
[title-raw] Increasing Bird Densities in Tunnel-Ventilated Houses

 
 
 
 

Categories: Tunnel ventilation
No. 3
March 1992
[title-raw] Side Wall Inlet Placement

 
 
 
 

Categories: Air inlets
No. 2
February 1992
[title-raw] Poultry House Tightness

 
 
 
 

Categories: Tightness
No. 1
January 1992
Volume: 3
[title-raw] How Much Ceiling Insulation is Enough?

 
 
 
 

Categories: Insulation
No. 11
December 1991
[title-raw] Negative Pressure Ventilation - The Basics

 
 
 
 

Categories: Negative pressure ventilation
No. 10
October 1991
[title-raw] Which Should I Use....Curtain or Power Ventilation?

 
 
 
 

Categories: Cold weather management
No. 9
September 1991
[title-raw] Temperature, Relative Humidity and Evaporative Cooling Systems

 
 
 
 
 

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 8
August 1991
[title-raw] Curtain Drop/Alarm System Failures

 
 
 
 

Categories: Environmental controllers
No. 7
July 1991
[title-raw] What is Evaporative Cooling?

 
 
 
 

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 6
June 1991
[title-raw] Air Velocity Meters

 
 
 
 

Categories: Environmental monitoring
No. 5
May 1991
[title-raw] Tips on Operating Tunnel-Ventilated Poultry Houses

 
 
 
 

Categories: Hot weather management
No. 4
April 1991
[title-raw] Fuel Savings With Radiant Brooders

 
 
 
 

Categories: Heating systems
No. 3
March 1991
[title-raw] Suffocation

 
 
 
 

Categories: Environmental controllers
No. 2
February 1991
[title-raw] Radiant Brooders

 
 
 
 

Categories: Heating systems
No. 1
January 1991
Volume: 2
[title-raw] Management of Forced Air FurnacesCategories: Heating systems
No. 16
December 1990
[title-raw] Ventilating Poultry Houses on Cold, Rainy Days

 
 
 
  

Categories: Minimum ventilation
No. 15
November 1990
[title-raw] Smoke Emitters

 
 
 
 

Categories: Environmental monitoring
No. 14
October 1990
[title-raw] Fogging Fans

 

 

 

 

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 13
September 1990
[title-raw] Tunnel Ventilation vs. Natural Ventilation With Mixing Fans

 
 
 
 

Categories: Tunnel ventilation
No. 12
August 1990
[title-raw] Tunnel vs. Conventional Broiler Houses

 
 
 
 

Categories: Tunnel ventilation
No. 11
August 1990
[title-raw] Using Fogging Nozzles in Tunnel-Ventilated Poultry Houses

 
 
 
 

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 10
June 1990
[title-raw] Relieving Heat Stress

 
 
 
 

Categories: Hot weather management
No. 9
June 1990
[title-raw] The Design and Operation of Tunnel-Ventilated Poultry Houses

 
 
 
 

Categories:
Hot weather management
Tunnel ventilation
No. 8
May 1990
[title-raw] Air Inlets and Fan Performance

 
 
 
 

Categories: Air inlets
No. 7
May 1990
[title-raw] Bird Migration in Tunnel-Ventilated Broiler Houses

 
 
 
 

Categories: Hot weather management
No. 6
April 1990
[title-raw] Stratification...Is it Costing You Money?

 
 
 
 

Categories: Circulation fans
No. 5
April 1990
[title-raw] Do Curtain Machines Save You Money?

 
 
 
 

Categories: Cold weather management
No. 4
March 1990
[title-raw] Fogging Nozzles in Tunnel-Ventilated Broiler Houses

 
 
 
 

Categories: Evaporative cooling
No. 3
March 1990
[title-raw] Compact Fluoresent Light Bulbs in Broiler Houses

 
 
 
  

Categories:
Energy conservation
Lighting
No. 2
February 1990
Volume: 1
[title-raw] Minimizing Heating Costs in Broiler Houses

 
 
 
 

Categories: Energy conservation
No. 2
September 1989
[title-raw] Circulation Fan Placement in Curtain-Sided Broiler Houses

 
 
 
 

Categories: Circulation fans
No. 1
June 1989