According to an excellent review of the history of online reprocessing by Dr. Stan Bailey of the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), approximately 0.5 to 1% of processed broilers require reprocessing. This percentage equates to 45 to 90 million carcasses per year. Prior to 1989, the USDA-FSIS would allow a fecally contaminated carcass to be inspection passed if the part that had feces on it was trimmed from the carcass. In 1989, the Code of Federal Regulations was amended such that, under ...the supervision of a USDA inspector, reprocessing treatments including trimming, vacuuming, washing, or a combination were allowed. If internal contamination was present or treatments other than trimming were to be used, then the entire carcass must be washed with water containing 20 ppm chlorine (Bailey, 2006).